In 1944, Thomas developed a surgical treatment for babies with cyanotic heart conditions. Thomas was a Black man working at an institution whose only other black employees did janitorial work, and he had not attended medical school – or even college.
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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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hello, and welcome to the bog ass time. Tracy be will then I'm Holly fry today we have the second episode and are not exactly a two part or about the development of a surgical treatment for blue babies.
But his children who have fanatic heart conditions, particularly to of below the earlier episode, was on Doktor Helen Tausig, and these two episodes are really prima stand. Alarms, but doktor tasks name is going to come up a lot in this one and like anatomical detail about what to trilogy of Fellow is we talked about
here I think you can understand the surgery without knowing all that detail if you like, but I didn't I didn't listen about when yet it'll be ok. Today, though, we are going to talk about surgical technician, Vivian, Thomas
Thomas was the one who really worked out how to do this surgery and when Doktor, Alfred Blaylock performed it for the first time Thomas was standing behind him. Walking him through it. Blaylock was the surgeon and chief at Johns Hopkins at this point, and Thomas's presence and the operating room
baffling or maybe even offensive to other observers, this was a nineteen. Forty, four and Thomas was a black man. Working at an end
ocean, whose only other black employees did janitorial work.
Also had not ever attended medical school or even college. Although I Thomas's work there are talking about today involved research
Animals and we're not gonna, have a ton of detail about that, but it is in their Vivian theme,
Thomas was born on August, twenty ninth nineteen ten in Lake Providence Louisiana a lot of sources list. His place of
This new Iberia and it is not entirely clear what is behind that discrepancy. The two cities are well over two hundred miles apart and Thomas
Otto as New Providence, his
I also says that he liked to joke that his parents named him Vivian because they thought they were going
have a girl, they'd already
a daughter, followed by two sons and thought and other daughter, was on the way: Vivian's father, William
the carpenter and his mother, Mary was a seamstress. The item I dont know if he was named after anyone, in particular the power the story. He liked Adele, not sure what his parents thought of that story when Vivian was to the family.
if to Nashville Tennessee and as he got a little older Vivian started, helping his father with the carpentry business and nineteen twenty nine.
Vivian graduated with honors from Pearl high school, which was the only high school in the area that admitted black students and which also had just an excellent reputation
he dreamed of going to medical school and, in addition to his carpentry work for his father, he had taken a job is in
orderly to try to earn enough money for it. Vivian also spent his summers. Doing maintenance work at Fisk University later in life. He described a format of experience he had at this job after he replaced some worn out flooring. His foreman told him that his work was unacceptable. The former
could still see where the repair had been made. Vivian did it over and later his form and pointed out that he could have just done it right. The first time, Vivian really took this to heart and the fall of nineteen twenty nine Vivian Thomas enrolled in the pre Med programme at Tennessee, agricultural and industrial college, which is now Tennessee State University. The historically black land
university. He hoped to go from there to Mahars medical College following them
seems hand release of the flexible report which we talked about on the show earlier this year. This was one of only two remaining medical schools that accepted lack students, but the great depression made Thomas's medical school aspirations impossible. The bank, where he had deposited his savings closed and he lost it all key,
Country work, dried up as well, and he started working a collection of odd jobs just to try to make ends meet an early
and thirty Thomas asked his friend Charles Man, love who worked at Vanderbilt University, whether he knew any job openings. There
Man love answered, but he did know about a job assisting in a laboratory, but the doktor running that lab doktor, Alfred Blaylock, was, in his words, hell to work with
over just a little on Blaylock, here
born in Georgia in eighteen. Ninety nine. He attended your
Military Academy and served in the army during World war. One before going on to the University of Georgia from there
that he'd medicine at Johns Hopkins University,
well, I was not a particularly great student, not bad, but also not exceptional. Consequently,
lost the general surgery residency that he wanted, because his grades just weren't good enough. So we lack started arrest
see in urology. Instead, after a while
he did manage to move back over to general surgery, but he had some kind of dispute with the other surgical residents and ultimately resigned. He wound up finishing his
article residency at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, which is the place he described as a backwater asked,
He finished that residency Blaylock continued to work at Vanderbilt in addition to
work is a surgeon. He was researching the nature of shock at the time the
failing theory was this shock brought on by trauma to the body was caused by toxins, and doctors did not really know how to treat it so after
finding out about Vivian Thomas's background include
that. He wanted to go to medical school Blaylock hired him by lacks research needed really careful monitoring. So he wanted somebody who could sat up and monitor experiments in the lab, while Blaylock was treating patients in the hospital way lack described it to Thomas. As wanting someone, he could train to do anything that he could do
and maybe some things he couldn't Thomas started this new job on February tenth, nineteen thirty, the pay was twelve dollars a week
media summer. He had earned twenty dollars a week as a carpenter, so at First Thomas was a little reluctant. At the same time, he imagined that this was temporary. The carpentry jobs, we're gonna come back with warmer, whether in the spring, so he saw this is just something to carry him over. In the meantime, most of Blaylocks research was being conducted on dogs and Thomas started out. Weighing MA am taken,
measurements, anesthetize MA am preparing them for surgical procedures, monitoring, Ma Am and keeping records, but quickly became clear that,
abilities went beyond all that these started learning to make incisions into suture and Doktor Joseph Beard, who was one of Blaylocks Research Fellows Tudor Thomas and anatomy. Physiology and chemist,
three a couple of months into Thomas's work with Blaylock. He made some kind of error by the time
wrote his autobiography many years later to describe this. He no longer remembered the details of exactly what he had done wrong, but when Blaylock discovered it, he was livid shouting and swearing in what Thomas described as almost a temper tantrum full of foul language.
after Blaylock left. The room. Thomas asked one of the lab assistance. How often that happened? The answer was,
time. Blaylock had previously had a bad night, meaning that he had drunk to excess so Thomas when it simply locks
And told him that while he was doing his best, but he might make mistakes sometimes and that he could not work for Blaylock if he was going to be spoken to that way, every time it happened, Thomas went on to say,
he had not been raised to use or to take that kind of language.
Although the other assistance express some doubts that Blaylocks behaviour would ever improve. Thomas said that he never face this kind of an outburst from Blaylock again, just in case
bringing hey. Wasn't this during prohibition
The answer is: yes, Blaylock,
had an illicit keg of whiskey. Hidden in the lab and
actually his and Thomas's relationship progressed to sometimes having a drink together, but they only socialize this way within the confines of the lab, always out of public view by one thousand nine hundred and thirty three Thomas and reach the point that he would prepare. A dog
surgery and open enclose, while Blaylock only did the actual surgical procedure that they were developing and then this progress to tell us doing the surgical procedures himself from beginning to end.
That started one day when Blaylock had asked for an animal to be prepared for surgery. But then he didn't arrive in the lab. Is expected, Thomas's work went,
way beyond what other technicians in the lab were typically doing, Blaylock would have an idea tat. We should work out and document how to do it before teaching it
Blaylock and Blaylock relied on Thomas's work extensively, he published papers that were based on techniques that Thomas had developed and perfected and he's data that Thomas had gathered when drafting papers Blaylock.
call on Tom is to check his wording to make sure that what he was describing was accurate. Since Thomas was the one who had the
thorough knowledge in nineteen, thirty, three Blaylock
however, a ground breaking lecture on the nature of traumatic shock based on their work together, he connected shock to blood and fluid loss and describe it as treatable with blood transfusions or plasma or, if neither of those available with failing that same year, Vivian Thomas married, clear of Flanders,
they would go on to have two daughters, Olga Faye, born in nineteen, thirty, four and theodosius, born in nineteen thirty, eight
we're, were still young, the family moved and we're gonna get into that after a sponsor break.
Recently spoke with Lula Demoiselle from Ally Bank, about how women's participation in investing has evolved over the years. I'm here with Lula, intimacy and
you're, going to talk a little bit about how women's role in participating in investing in investing their own money, how that has evolved over the years.
Thanks for having me. So, can you tell us a little bit about why his
quickly. Women haven't invested as much as men have. Will you
it's interesting, because it you can look at it- also trappings of the right to vote. The right of many things at the suffragists sort of started out that had to be consequently realize
It's like. I bet you don't know that until the nineteen sixty four, the woman could actually open a bank account right starting to open a credit card was nineteen. Seventy four. So to me,
and game for the gender on part of it. Is we ve just not been in the club,
long time, and this thing takes practice to do, and then part of it is also just typically in two person
households? Women have been relegate.
It's really the chief financially
officer in the sense that you know she's the person? That's really governing the budgets and spend
not really about investing in. So it's it's really been in the last two plus decades.
But you see women turning into the investors in the household
still a long way to go. We have not been at this and have been invited not long enough. Do you think that women?
still under represented today in terms of investing yes
more than just under represented. It's also. The industry is not shaped to truly welcome the men right. The majority
advisors are still male. Women are considered to be more cautious as investors and so typically bigger,
relegated to things that are less sort of investing in more high yield savings kind of vehicles, which is there something wrong with those either. But I think
which of it about under representation is also because the industry has been shaped to invite them in what do you think that industry can do to continue to become more welcoming to women, as investors
great question. I mean a few things. One is continued.
design, services and products that are increased,
since in the way that they are shape. Typically, you know,
said the women are more conservative in their investment outlook, but it's also because they like to do a lot of research, so maybe products
services that mean harder on up front research and
understanding before people have to jump in, and so I think, there's a lot of things we can do in the intestine ality of how we design services that not only will benefit women but just widen the scope of people who can participate. Thank you so much Lulay
Thank you to ally and best were being part of the show. Today, thanks for letting me,
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the research that Alfred Blaylock, Vivian, Thomas and others, and the research lab Vanderbilt we're doing in the nineteen thirties and anti nineteen forty led to lifesaving treatment for wounded soldiers during world war. Two, but out of this kind,
Regions were really not acknowledged at the time. His pay was also lower.
But he had the moonlight as a bar tender to make ends meet some included at parties hosted by Doktor Blaylock, where Thomas sometimes had to serve drinks to his collar
from the lab over the years, the possibility of going to medical school faded away, even after the end of the great depression there
just wasn't enough money to safer school while also supporting a family, even though tat
I was doing the work of a senior research fellow he was being paid and classified as a janitor when Thomas realised this
asked for a raise. He was given one, but he wasn't sure if he was moved into a technicians position or if he was just being paid more and was still being listed as a janitor.
in eighteen, thirty, seven Blaylock was offered a job as chief of surgery at Henry Ford Hospital and is right, and this would have been a huge step up for his career. But when Blaylock asked about bringing Thomas with him as his assistant, the hospital made it clear that it did not higher black people. Blaylock turned down the job, not because of any kind of sense of fairness, but but
He knew that Thomas was critical to his work in nineteen thirty, eight Blaylock and Thomas started researching pulmonary hypertension. Their eggs
men involved, re routing, the blood flow around the pulmonary artery and back into the lungs. It did not work as they had hoped.
that will come up again later in the episode in ninety
Forty one Blaylock was offered another job this time at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore Maryland again as certain and chief once again, Blaylock asked about bringing Thomas with him as his assistant Johns Hopkins. Only
employees at the time were working in janitorial roles, but they ultimately agreed baton.
I wasn't sure that he wanted to go. Emit relocating his whole family from Nashville to Baltimore, a city that he had
for Ben too and where they didn't know anybody, but it also see
unlikely that he could find a job related to medicine. Without his connection to Blaylock and with world
two looming Thomas thought. The job might offer him some protection. If he were drafted, the heat might wind up in a medical unit. Ultimately Thomas did decide to go with Blaylock, and this move turned out to be a lot harder than expected. Blaylock had negotiated their salaries without a clear sense of how much more expensive Baltimore was the Nashville suspected, both of them obviously but infected Thomas. He was making a lot less money at the lot more.
loudly and it turned out that Thomas's pay just was not enough to support his family. The two cities were also quite different for their black residence. In Nashville, the Thomas's had lived in a thriving black neighbourhood with black owned businesses and a robust middle class, but most of baltimores black residents were living in overcrowded tenements and many were living in poverty. Thomas described many of the apartments he's
while looking for a place to live in the only neighborhoods where he would be allowed to live as barely fit for human habitation. Johns Hopkins refuse to increase Thomas's pay from what had originally been negotiated. So Blaylock convinced neurosurgeon Walter Dandy to make a gift to the medical school earmarked for Thomas's salary that made too
MRS living situation more comfortable in terms of finances, but he was still having to face segregation and racism at work every day, Johns Hopkins treated black patients, but they entered the facility through a separate door. Some departments have segregated wards and others saw black and white patients on different days of the week. Blood banks and morgues were,
so segregated by race. Also, I mean, as I mentioned earlier, the only other black employees. There were doing things like janitorial work and so after being openly,
stared at while walking through the building wearing his white lab code. Thomas decided just not to wear it outside of a lab again,
the lab was the old hungarian laboratory and it was also in disrepair Thomas had to repaint maker
there's an order new equipment before it was really workable once they were settled in Blaylock into
as began working on finding ways to treat narrowed a orders in babies and children, including developing techniques, to suit your blood vessels together, then, nineteen forty two pediatric cardiologists Doktor Helen Tausig, approached Doktor Blaylock about trying to find a surgical treatment for scientific heart disease or hard conditions that cause the skin and the mucous membrane. To look blue because of a lack of
oxygen is also known as blue baby syndrome. In particular, she was interested in a treatment for technology. A fellow ass. We talked about in more detail on the episode on Taussig. This is a collection.
Four congenital malformations that causes blood to circulate through the body without carrying enough oxygen when without treatment about half of children born with sexuality of flow die before their third birthday and the vast majority don't live to adulthood. There's a bit of debate about who came up with which piece of the idea
surgical treatment for this condition: various versions, credit, Blaylock, Tausig and Doktor Edwards Park, who is chief of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins with specific details, including which specific blood vessels to focus on that
generally agreed that Taussig suggested that Blalock look for a surgical treatment for the tetralogy of fellow and that Thomas was the one who worked out the process, and I worked out the process Blalock and Thomas's, one thousand nine hundred and thirty eight attempts at inducing pulmonary hypertension provided a starting point. So first Thomas worked out how to surgically replicate a condition similar to technology of flow.
dogs, and then he worked out how to connect the sub Cleon and pulmonary arteries, basically allowing more blood to travel. Back into the lungs to pick up more oxygen
Thomas two years of work and hundreds of surgeries to perfect. This process starts
on dogs and then moving on to human cadavers, because there were
suturing needle small enough to work on the blood vessels of babies and small children Thomas had to manually.
I'll them down from larger needles. He asked
had the improvised suturing silk as no silk had been developed that was made specifically for working on blood vessels. In addition to all of that
there were worries about whether children who were sick enough to meet could surgery could actually survive being it felt pretty, for it Thomas felt pretty confident in the process that he had worked out by late nineteen. Forty four and we'll talk about the first time. Blaylock performed it on a human patient,
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In the summer and autumn, twenty twenty, the city of Portland Oregon, became the centre of a vast media blitz. Thousands of viral video showing marching federal agents and police officers, tear gas black, clad anarchists and fires went viral all over the internet. What didn't go viral was the truth, because the story of Portland Black lives matter movement and of the Portland protests of twenty twenty is so much stranger than I think the mainstream media would ever be willing to cover. I
is there and, more importantly, the people, but I talk to you for my new show: uprisen a guide from Portland were there through their experiences. You'll, learn the truth both about Portland and about what's coming for the rest of the United States in the next few years, listen to uprisings, a guide from Portland on November. Twenty third on the I hurt radio web Apple podcast or wherever you listen to pod, casts.
Eileen facts than was born August. Third. Nineteen, forty three seven weeks before her mother was due to give birth and she had to tragedy of follow by the age of fifteen months, her prey
notice was grave. She wade only nine pounds and she had spent several months living in an oxygen tat so because this was a bright
new surgery that had never been done on a living person. It was inherently incredibly risky, so the surgical team was looking for a patient who simply could not survive without it. Eileen fit that description,
Blaylock and Tausig wanted to avoid pressuring Eileen's parents one way or another, but they also wanted them to be able to make an informed decision so Blaylock and Taussig carefully.
explained what was involved in what the risks were, including showing islands parents before and after diagrams. I leans parents ultimately agree
to the surgery which was conducted on November 29th, one thousand nine hundred and forty four doctor Blaylock was the surgeon and Dr Helen Taussig, was also in the operating room standing behind Blalock and just to his left was Vivien Thomas, who walked Blalock through the surgery step by
Thomas had not planned to attend the surgery at all, but Blaylock wound up sending for him. Blaylock had never actually done this procedure himself. He had seen Thomas do it. He had assisted Thomas on one surgery on a dog. There just had not been time for Blaylock to practice beyond that, because I leans condition
take a turn for the worse, I leaned survive this surgery. Although the first published paper about it, describes her post operative course, as quote stormy,
who was able to go home about two months later, although she died during a follow up surgery later on in nineteen. Forty five. By that point, Blaylock had operated on to more human pay
That's an eleven year old girl on February third and six and a half.
old boy. On February tenth, they chose older patients because I blood vessels had just been so so tiny. They were less than half the size of the dogs. Vessels that Thomas had developed this procedure on both these procedures were successful, though
and in the February tenth surgery, the patient's coloring dramatically shifted from blue to pink. While he was still on operating table. Even
Oh, they had only done this surgery three times by may have ninety
forty five Blaylock and were confident enough in the results that they published a paper
colonel of the American Medical Association anesthesiologists nurse and ask the tests and people who were part of patients post operate
Here were mentioned in this article. Vivien Thomas was not one thousand nine hundred and forty six medical professionals were calling this the Blalock Taussig operation, or sometimes just the Blalock operation within a decade. It was the standard treatment for tetralogy of fellow and it's possible that the success with the surgery saved Blaylock's career. He had attempted stuff
complicated surgeries and the months leading up to all this. Several of them had not gone very well, and his reliance on a black surgical technician had also raised some eyebrows. Basically, before this people had started to question his abilities, both as a surgeon and as the chief of surgery
but after word started to spread about the success of the Blaylock Tausig operation. New patients flooded Johns Hopkins, so many than a portion
the children, surgical ward, had to be designated the tat room for patients with technology, a fellow and other psychotic conditions. Vivian Thomas was present in the operating room for the first one hundred of these surgeries that Blaylock performed advising him and correcting all kind
details like how big the sutures were, how far apart they were, and whether the
we're in the right direction? If anyone tried to stand by
mind and to the left of Blaylock. He would tell them that only Vivian was to stand and that spot over the course of six year.
Blaylock perform this surgery, one thousand times on children with several different cyanotic heart conditions about seventy five percent of them with technology, a fellow
so ass, we noted earlier Johns Hopkins did treat black patients, but there were some racial disparities among the children that Blaylock treated for scientific heart conditions. Only
A few of those first thousand patients were black and nineteen. Seventy seven pay
reporting the long term outcomes of these surgeries. Tausig attributed this to a collection of factors that affected black patients. The first was the finances was harder to see in patients who had darker skin. She also noted that doctors who retreating black patients might be less experienced and that families involved might not have the means to pay for the operation.
Or be aware of sources of funding that were available that might help them pay for it. In nineteen, forty four Thomas became lab supervisor it had become so
of a tradition to use the lab as veterinary clinic on Friday afternoons and after a while Thomas became the go to veterinary surgeon for Johns Hopkins Faculty and staff, the first dog to survive the blue baby
Caesar a dog named Anna also became
something of a laboratory pet under Thomas's care and a public relations face for the hospital which face
ongoing vocal criticism from anti vivisection exists for this work and nineteen forty six Thomas seriously considered leaving Johns Hopkins and moving back to Nashville demand for carpenters had really surge during the construction boom that followed world war to Thomas had the opportunity for far more lucrative work
just before Christmas of that year, Blaylock presented him with an offer that would more than double his salary. After Thomas had already accepted it. Blaylock told him that was gonna, be the last
conversation they would ever be. Having about his pay Thomas said he would not have accepted that
offer. Had he known about that condition, and it's fair
absolutely fair, is kind of infuriates me. They went back and forth about it with Blaylock, going back to the Johns Hopkins Board of Trustees and in the end, a new salary bracket was created for people like Vivian Thomas.
People who are in a highly skilled, critically necessary positions, but who didn't have degrees Thomas was placed in this bracket, meaning that he wasn't at a dead end in terms of his salary there. Before this point I mean an additional
does he know moonlighting as the bartender that we talked about earlier? There is of time when he was also trying to moonlight as like a pharmaceutical sales rep, and with this there layer cake cannot do this firm. A suitable sales thing anymore, does almost the whole separate thing so Thomas and Blaylock continued to work together. For decades later, Thomas developed a procedure called atrium September. To me, this involves making a small hole in the wall between the hearts, left and right atrium, and that can help treat pulmonary hypertension an some congenital heart diseases, including when a person's blood vessels around their heart are transposed. This procedure is something that's how they had worked on discreetly. He kept it a secret and showed Blaylock his success only after he was
that it had worked. This was the procedure that Blaylock described as looking quote like something. The Lord made now became a title of a nineteen eighty, nine article in the washing Tony, and that was many people's first exposure to Vivian Thomas as well as the title of the eight. We owe film that dramatize as this relationship in nineteen fifty one Thomas was credited in a published paper. For the first time,
after a visiting fellow from Canada included him among the authors, not realising all the social and racial implications involved. Other doctors include
Thomas in the years that followed, although he was never credited on Blaylocks publications,
one thousand and fifty nine Blalock turn sixty and Thomas was not invited to the faculty party in his honor, so the organizers sneaks him in and he watched from behind the plants, which is something that he later described as human,
eating Blaylock retired from Johns Hopkins five years later, and as he was mulling over how to spend his time after his retirement Thomas said not to include him in those plans for most of their
thirty four years, working together, Blalock had just assumed that they were a package when entertaining other job and research offers. Thinking that, if he left Johns Hopkins Thomas would obviously go to, but Thomas wanted to make his own way. Blalock died on September 15th, one thousand nine hundred and sixty four just a few months after he retired
towards the end of his life. He expressed some regret over having not ever sent Thomas to Medical school Blaylock,
obituary in the New York Times described the surgery performed on Eileen Saxon Quote hospital officials recall
the doktor Blaylock made along incision and exposed the beating heart of a fifteen month old girl. Then
three hours. He worked at an operation. No one had ever done before
Obituary also mentioned Tausig involvement, but not that Thomas was standing behind Blaylock and walking him through it. Vivian Thomas continued to have a career at Johns Hopkins after Blaylocks Retirement as lab supervisor. He had been training, surgeons and technicians for years, including training, twenty black surgical technicians, two of whom later went on to medical school, the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine integrated and nineteen sixty three and Thomas
They become a mentor for the universities, first, black medical students and residence in the years that followed attitudes about race were shifting in the United States in general and at Johns Hopkins, specifically in an elite. Ninety six
surgeons and technicians who had trained with Vivian Thomas started. To advocate for him to be recognised for his contributions, a group of former surgical fellows nickname the old
his club took the lead on commissioning and paying for a portrait of Vivian Thomas to be hung up.
cast from Blaylocks Ox Portrait in the lobby of the Blaylock building at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The portrait
as unveiled at a meeting of the Johns Hopkins Medical and surgical society in nineteen. Seventy one after a series of Speeches Thomas spoke as well. He said that when he had learned about the plans for this portrait quote, my emotions were quite mixed:
They still are people, and our category are not accustomed to being in the limelight. Most of you are if our names get into
and it's usually in the very fine print down at the bottom somewhere but being placed in the position I find myself now makes me feel quite humbled, but at the self same time, just a little proud
at no time during all the years that I have been here at Hopkins. Have I
any idea that I would ever do anything that would make a mark upon this institution or make any contribution to the field of medicine. That would merit such recognition as I am getting here today. Press coverage about the unveiling of this portrait is how many have Thomas's friends and neighbors learned for the first time just what kind of work he had been doing. A job
and a huge wrote in his Otto Biography about getting in this call. From a friend like the morning, the newspaper came out Laskin Malchus questions than he was like I've still in bed. I don't I don't know what you're talking about further recognition.
promises, achievements and contributions followed from their in nineteen seventy six, he was named in
director of surgery at Johns, Hopkins University School of medicine
meaning that he was for the first time, formerly part of the faculty.
He was awarded an honorary doctorate by the university that same year. This followed and effort
University of Maryland College Park to do the same, which fell through after the board of Regions, voted not to approve it. Even though Thomas had already
informed that it was in the works yet seem very embarrassing for the University of Airline College part also for evil
art entirely clear to me. The honorary doktor he got is doctored of laws and not a doktor medicine, and I was not able to track down why that was the died. There were vague references to there being some restrictions and I was like what restrictions do you mean toward the end of his time? At Johns Hopkins Thomas worked with Doktor Levi Watkins Junior. He was the first black medical student to graduate from Vanderbilt University and the first black cardiac surgery resident at Johns
Ganz Thomas helped Watkins, develop and troubleshoot the process for implementing an automatic, cardiac defibrillator. That is a surgery that Watkins performed for the first time ever in nineteen, eighty two,
had retired. Just a year before that happened, and at the request of many of his colleagues, he had started. Writing an autobiography. The autobiography
was printed as pioneering research and surgical shock and cardiovascular surgery, Vivian Thomas and his work with Alfred Blaylock com
he's printed more recently are titled partners of the heart, which is also the title of a movie from PBS american experience, the debuted in two thousand for the HBO
we ve called something the Lord Mayor Stars, most deaf as Vivian Thomas Alan Rick, Alfred Blalock and Mary and Mary, Stuart Masterson is Helen Tausig and it also came out in two thousand for Vivian Thomas died of pancreatic cancer on November twenty six nineteen, eighty five, the work that he did with Alfred Blaylock really set the stage for the field of cardiac surgery. It was a field that really flourished from their Blaylock and Thomas and the rest of the surgical team demonstrated that it was possible to
operator on a heart and that patients who are sick enough to require cardiac surgery could survive the Anna Caesar and the physical trauma that were required to carry it out. When Alfred Blaylock, Helen Tausig and Robert Gross were granted the Albert Lascaux Clinical Medical Research award and nineteen fifty four they were described as launching quote a world wide surge of is affecting investigation and corrective surgery into all phases of cardiovascular dynamics. This
so lately would not have been possible without Vivian Thomas surgical procedures at Thomas developed are still perform today. Although the Blaylock Thomas Tausig shunned as it is,
Recently known is often a temporary first step to help a patient survive.
Till they can have other procedures to address a heart.
malformation. More directly. Today, a typically involves
synthetic shant rather than one of the patient's own blood vessels for one point of conjecture. Abed often comes up as what Thomas might have achieved if he had been able to attend
medical school, the idea being that if he was so brilliant with a high school education, but he might have been true,
astounding if he had been able to earn an empty, but really that's a little complicated Thomas's connection to Blaylock gave him access to white medical institutions which he would not have had. If he had gone to medical school and start
career of his own, in the words of Doktor Rowena Spencer, who worked with Thomas on the development of the April September me and was the only woman ever to serve as a surgical in turn for Alfred Blaylock
quote, the truth of the matter is that, as the black physician in that era, he would probably have had to spend all his
Time and energy. Making a living among an economically deprived black population
and will end with a brief and frequently repeated and illustrative story from the late doktor J Alex how're early in his
your Heller was working at the National Institutes of Health with Alfred Casper as a technician.
One day while working in the lab. How ran into trouble with bleeding during a procedure but solved the problem. Casper,
women did, however, on how he had handled himself and how her said. Well, I trained with Doktor Blaylock later
during another procedure that went even further awry. Howler found him.
totally at a loss for what to do and Casper stepped in and fix the situation when how are things
in complemented Casper. He said I trained Vivian train
be of a little listener mail to wrap this up. I view, as
I'm related to medicine and previous episodes that we have done on the theme of saving lots of baby and it is from Shana Shana, says hello. Holly and Tracy. I've been listening to a podcast for years.
and I ve always wanted to be a part of your listener emails but had never had anything interesting to impart, and then, when I felt like I did,
I never actually got around to writing that email. I even put it on my to do list, maybe even last year, where it's been link,
until now, this
there has been a year of fate, especially surrounding my wedding last weekend that we booked in August as a purposeful, covert wedding. It was a pop up wedding, which
perfect for me as a bride, who wanted nothing to do with the planning part of a wedding and was amazing anyway, not the purpose of this amiable. It was your podcast recently where Tracy mentioned procrastination, to which I reminded myself about e mailing and then at the end of Abram Stoker episode. You talk.
bout, the episode days, our view, which is what our rigidly was going to eat mail you about c fate. So now I feel compelled to actually push aside the procrastination and get down to business. This goes back to the episode about Doktor coolly and the premature babies. I started listening to. Sob owns a recommendation for me:
eyes and they did an episode about Doktor Cootie and I was like yeah stuff you mustn't. History did this topic already: the inventor doctor that premature babies
vented incubator showed at some kind of world Fair brought it to. America was like a beach sidetracked, nor some.
I totally remember this and then shortly thereafter you guys released an episode on dockworkers.
You mentioned that it was on Sarbanes
there utterly confused, because in my mind you had our
They done that topic, that's how I knew about it. I tried thirteen the archives and found nothing. So ever since I've had this itching thought of how
I know all about Doktor Cuneo before both podcast it episodes on it. Maybe I'm
for now, but it's the weirdest thing, and I a hundred percent, understand episode Deja VU
fair risotto onto right a little bit about the home Economics episode that we did previously and, of course, that was offered and on here
show called managing personal and family resources, which included all kinds of basic life stuff, including what the symbols on your clothes mean for washing I'm not going to read the whole rest of the email, because it is relatively long, but I just want to say I hate those washing symbols. I know the
was to try to standardize wandering instruction on labels, but I dont know if any of that mean, and every time looking at a new peace like a new garment that I'm watching for the first time, if it only has those symbols- and it doesn't have words- I'm like having to google laundry symbols to be able to do my laundry so anyway, Shanna. Thank you so much for this email. I became very curious to be like how did shot. I learn about the baby side. Shows that see that that he knows seem to already be yes on his mind before having got entire episode. There was a couple of years before
are we or sovereigns did the episode? There was an episode of story core which would have been played during morning edition unimpeded are, if you are a morning edition listener or just a story, coral listener, and that predated episode and the sovereigns episode in the ninety nine percent, invisible episode, all of which were reasonably near one another I think yeah or maybe the sovereigns was was first, the Southerners was first and then it was like us and ninety nine percent of as well knew each other. Anyway, that's a great mystery solve
I'm all tat would have liked to hear that before what didn't even we're out of hollowing season, so I can't go past life experience but so shot off. Is that lots of future episode suggestions as well so anyway, thank you shot up for this email thanks. Everybody has been writing to us lately. If you'd like to write to us about this or
any other part guesswork. History, podcast at Iheartradio, DOT, radio, dot com, we're social media, social media. As Mr History, that's real hundred facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, an interim and you can subscribe. Our show
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Transcript generated on 2020-11-18.