W. Montague Cobb was the first Black person in the U.S. to earn a PhD in physical anthropology, worked to debunk racist theories in the field, was an activist for desegregation and Medicare, and was an anatomy professor at Howard University.
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creative primary care welcome to stuff. You missed in history glass, a pretty of Iheart radio hello and welcome to the hard gasped I'm crazy be well, then am Holly fry. I have a weekly virtual limbs with a friend of mine, and sometimes one of us basically briefed the other work on whatever project we are working on right now and when we were talking about this week's episode I started out things like he was a physical anthropologist who did a lot of work to debunk the racist theories of other anthropologists and then later on. In this conversation, I said something like on top of being an anthropologist. He was an activist and that all kinds of worked, desegregate hospitals and advocate for the passage of the Medicare bill
and then later I don't like all, and he was also what anatomy Professor Howard's, though he was teaching anatomy to a whole generation of black doctors and dentists, and at that point my friend said wait. How can one person do that? Much, that's correct! That is a lot and that, on top of that, that three completely different things, W Montague Cobb, put out a surely enormous volume of work. It was also the first black than in the United States to earn a Phd in Anthropology. He was the only black american working at that level in the field for decades, when he wrote prolific about anthropology and racial equity and medical history, and on and on so he see we're talking about today and William Montague Cobb was born in Washington DC on October, twelfth nineteen o, for he was known to his friends and Emily as Monti his mother
was Alec, seen Montague Cobb and she was born in Washington DC, but her parents were from Massachusetts. Several says note that she had indigenous ancestry in our episode on Paul Coffee, We talked about how marriages between african and indigenous people were common in Massachusetts in the eighteenth century. But beyond that, there really was in clear detail that Tracy was able to dig up on Alex Scenes, family history and her her by her Providence now regard so Montes Father, William Elmer Rob was originally from Selma Alabama and he had moved to the Washington D C. At the end of the nineteenth century to work at the government printing office. Eventually, he started his own business as a friend,
before the young Monti started school. His mother, who had been a schoolteacher, taught him the basics of reading writing and math, and the family also attended Fifteenth street presbyterian church. One of Monday's childhood fascination was a book that belong to his grandfather. This book included illustrations of people of different races and ethnicities, and they were shown in traditional for of dress, and he was really struck by how all these different people from all around the world were drawn, as he described them quote, with equal dignity, Cobb attended, segregated public schools in Washington DC and for high school. He attended Paul Lawrence Dunbar high when we ve talked about school segregation before we have often talked about huge disparities in funding resources and its
national quality with schools for white children, typically having more of everything, more money, better facilities and white teachers who were also vastly better paid than their black counterparts. And while segregation was still fundamentally discriminatory. Dunbar was something of an exception to this pattern. Yet Dunbar had been established in eighteen. Seventy, it was the first public high school for black students in the United States and by the time, Cobb, attended it had a reputation as a truly elite school. It was the best high school for black students. In the U S, it was one of the best high schools in the country overall, many of the faculty had advanced agrees. Although this is often because they were kept out of university positions because of their race, some of the faculty. At them
were actually alumni, who had gone on to graduate school and then had come back to Dunbar to teach the teachers. Pay was also equivalent to that of white teachers and Washington DC public schools, but not necessarily that of people. With the same degree who were working in another area besides being schoolteachers as an academic high school Dunbar, tried to prepare it. Students to attend college and recent graduates were often invited back to the school, to talk to current students about their colleges and universities. Some of the students who came back to Dunbar, while cowboys there had gone on to Amherst College in Massachusetts after Cobb graduated from Dunbar nine thousand and twenty one he went on to get a bachelor's degree at Amherst. He was one of four black students in his class there gotta done really well at Dunbar, and that continued at Amherst. In addition to accelerating it, has
academic work. He was also a gifted athlete. He ran cross country, any boxed that was actually something he had taught himself out of a book ass, a teenager for the sake of self defense. He won intramural championships and Birth cross country and boxing before graduate From Amherst and nineteen, twenty five thanks to his strong academic performance in biology, cupboard, Amherst Harvey blog. It scholarship, which allowed him to continue his studies at woods. Whole marine biology, laboratory on Cape COD at once, whole Cobb worked under doktor earnest just just was an experimental embryologists who was also on the faculty at Howard, University, Cobb's research work, it woods, whole included, observing fertilisation and embryonic development of marine animals under a microscope and taking detailed, no
and sketching what he had observed from their Cobb decided to pursue a degree in medicine at Howard, university and his motivation, for this was in his words quote. I just felt a doktor was respected and made sick. People were how to earn money for his tuition. He spent his summers working as a waiter on a great lake steamship, as well as harvesting grain and fiscal. One at Howard, he joined the omega sigh five fraternity and nineteen twenty six. He helped established fraternities cap aside chapter for students at the universities, professional schools, including its medical school. He continued to excel academically, and in his last year of medical school, he was invited to teach a course and embryology based on his academic performance and his earlier work at woods. Hole
Cobb earned his MP from Howard and nineteen twenty nine that same year he married Hilda be Smith. They would go on to have two daughters Carolyn and held it Amelia, who would be known as Amelia Cobb completed his internship at Howard University Hospital, which at the time was known as the Friedman Hospital he passed sport exams that he got a licence to practice, medicine in surgery and nineteen thirty, but Cobb's experience, teaching that embryology worse had also shifted his focus for his career. He decided that instead of becoming a practising doktor, he would become a teacher teaching other people to become doctors. Dentist
insurgents. This goal aligned very well with Howard's goals of the black University, although most of the medical students at Howard were black, most of the faculty were white and they were working part time. Mordechai Johnson was Howard Universities. First black president thought that it student body would be better served if there were more full time black professors, but this really presented a challenge. The university was training black doctors, but there really were not many black people who were qualified to fill these teaching roles. The university decided to invest in its own graduates and to prepare them to teach at the medical school Numa Peachy Adams was dean at the medical school at Howard, like Mordechai Johnson. He was the first black person to fill that Rome, rob was one of the medical School alumni Adam selected for this effort. Com chose anatomy as his focus for further study, because in his words quote,
Atta me is the kindergarten of medicine. He didn't mean that an atom was an easy playtime, but instead that it was the foundation on which the study of medicine rested. He went on to Western Reserve University. That is now case Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio to study both anatomy and Physical anthropology. We will talk about that act.
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the are best beans Anthropology Betty Humanity, and today the field of Physical Anthropology is largely focused on human evolution, looting, genetic research into humans and our hominid ancestors, but in the the early years of the field when it was very first branching off from the related field of anatomy, Physical Anthropology was largely focused on researching human development and human diversity through the study of the human body and a lot of that research tried to categorize humanity into different rates, is one of the earliest figures in this research was Germany, anthropologist, Johan Friedrich, Bloomin back, who is sometimes called the father of physically anthropology. His study of human Madam, I particularly the cranium led him to propose that all
humanity can be divided into five races and he d find those races as caucasian Mongolian, Malayan, ethiopian and American. In the? U S, physician and anthropologists Samuel Morton started, collecting skulls meant to represent each of those races any started doing that in eighteen. Thirty, this work led him to build a huge collect of skulls measuring them and drawing conclusions based on those measurements. A lot of this work was explicitly racist in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Many, but certainly not all physical anthropologists used measurements of the house body not just to try to sort people into categories by race, but also to rank those categories according to their superiority or their worth Morton,
for example, used his cranium measurements to try to prove that white people was were superior to all other races check. Anthropologist alleged heard liquor, primarily in the United States, is regarded as one of the founders of the field of Physical anthropology. In the U S, and he also supported the idea that white people, specifically white man, were superior and the physical anthropology. Field could prove that superiority and outlier in all of this was Thomas Wingate Todd, professor of anatomy, at Western Reserve University, Medical School Todd's own work. In an atom, ie and physically Interpol G led him to conclude that race did not influence brain development and that the racist conclusions his colleagues had drawn from things like skull measurements were baseless. His research suggested that fish
illogical differences that fell along demographic lines were due to social and environmental conditions, not to innate race related traits that conferred some kind of superiority he was deeply critical of heard, which goes conclusions about the supremacy of white men. Thomas Wingate tide was also William Montague, Cobb's mentor at Western Reserve University and his Phd thesis adviser, while it Western Reserve, worked at the Hamon Museum of Comparative Anatomy and and anthropology, and he embarked- a massive survey of the skeletal collections that were available for anthropological research. This included the Hamon Todd collection at Western Reserve and collections that were held at the. U S, National Museum, which is now the Smithsonian, the curator of the collection at the National Museum. What
alas, her. Let's go as aside known minutes later years, Cobb speculated on. Why Todd who, as we said, was his thesis adviser, had sent him to work under Thirdly, on this project, in spite of knowing about that man's racist views. One reason was just physical proximity since then No museums collection was in Washington DC where Cobb lived and had lived for almost all of his life, but cobble we concluded that another reason was that time just wanted to see. I heard let's go with Square Cobb's intelligence and academic excellence, with his views of people with african ancestry as inferior. Although calmness I've heard lisco as generally treating him without word respect. He also does I've him, as quote in granting a reason why he was different from other black people that, in her because Word Cobb's quote vigour stemmed from his the racial ancestry, Cobb Venice cheese
the hd in anatomy and Physical Anthropology in nineteen. Thirty, two that made him the first black man in the United States to earn a phd in the field of anthropology. His deserted Sin was published the following year under the title, human archives and, in addition to it, detailing the research collections in Cleveland and in Washington DC. This dissertation also serve aid methods for documenting processing and preserving these types of collections. So Cobb's goal with this dissertation was not just to meet the requirements for his phd. It was also to give him the foundational that he would be to establish such a research collection at Howard. As we said earlier, the field of Physical Anthropology was brand new. At this point, it was I knew that the first meeting of the American Association of Physical anthropologists that Cobb attended with only the stuff one ever to have been held. An Cobb was really the only by
voice in the field until the nineteen fifties after completing his Phd Cobb, returns to Howard as planned, although he often spent summers working with the collections at case western and at the sincerity in he also did extensive research into the human, cranium and connections between the bones of the cranium and the bones of the face. He drew conclusions about how these bones grew and develop over the course of a person's life. One of his discoveries in this research related to the closure of the cranial facial sutures at the time, one method that researchers used to determine age when they were analyzing a person's remains, was to analyze the closure of this tourism. The cranium and Cobb concluded that this just wasn't a reliable method, because a range of biological factors could affect the way a person's sutures closed at Howard, Cobb spent the next few years, both
teaching anatomy and establishing the universities, laboratory of Anatomy and Physical anthropology. His work involve preserving the skeletons that had been part of anatomy students, cadaver labs, as well as keeping meticulous records involving their medical history and demographic data. Cobb continued preserving skeletons for this collection until nineteen sixty five for a total of nine hundred. Eighty seven sets of skeletal remains. He also took x rays, medical records and demographic data from more than nine hundred living persons. To add to the collection, the W Montague Cobb Research Laboratory still exists at how
today. As does this collection and in terms of skeletal collections, its unique along with remains from the New York African burial ground there also at Howard, but Cobb collection is the only such collection of skeletal remains housed at a historically black university and its also unique in terms of the skeletons themselves they represent. The scale What remains of people who donated their bodies to the university or that the university purchased overwhelmingly. They represent black residents of Washington DC, who died between one thousand nine hundred and thirty one, and one thousand nine hundred and sixty five. So, in addition to what they represent in terms of,
Study of Human anatomy, physiology and anthropology? They also represent of a source of information, specifically about the black population of Washington DC over more than three decades in nineteen, forty two Cobb became a full professor at Howard and in nineteen forty nine. He was named chair of the Anatomy Department, that's a role that he held until one thousand nine hundred and sixty nine as a professor. He became known for taking an interdisciplinary. To the subject he recited poetry, to illustrate concepts and he played the violin. While students worked on their dissections. He also thought basic skills in drawing were critical to studying anatomy, that understanding proportions and representations would give students a fuller understanding of the human body. Students would draw a human figure and its skeletal structure then fill in the remaining anatomical features layer by later
so this method of anatomical study through drawing was popular in anatomy classrooms at the start of Cobb's career, but by the nineteen sixty that had really fallen favour and in nineteen sixty nine first year, medical students at Howard launched a protest against Cobb, both as it anatomy better and as the chair of the Department of Anatomy, students felt his anatomy classes were to theatrical and to free form, and they were not focused on preparing them to pass their board exams. Where is to me, I'm leg, you get to learn art with your science. That's amazing, clearly different priorities, although cob was removed from his position as department chair after this fifty eight members of the faculty signed a petition protesting this removal in the end Cobb was named Howard's. First distinguished professor, that's a role he held until one thousand nine hundred and seventy three when he reached the school's mandatory,
urban age of seventy, a dinner held in his honour that year was attended by many of the same people who had protested against him in nineteen sixty nine students who were now in their last year, a medical school according to Cobb's colleague, Charles H, Epps. Who would later be named dean of the medical school? By this point? Many of the students felt that they hadn't been entirely fair to Cobb in their earlier protest near. There is also some discussion that he was sort of the most the most high profile person in the medical school, and so it made him an easy target, first students, you sort of felt the whole medical school system was too paternalistic and became like an emblem of all over the frustrations of the students at the time after his retirement, though Cobb held the title of distinguished professor emeritus than
continued working at twelve other colleges and universities by doing guest professorships by Cobb's own counts. He taught anatomy to as many as six thousand medical and dental students, most of whom were black over the course. His career and we're gonna talk about his work outside the anatomy classroom. After we first pause for a sponsor break documents than history glasses brought. You by progressive insurance, saving money, Your car insurance is easy with progressive. It's an average savings of over seven hundred fifty dollars for customers who switch and save. In fact, customers can qualify for an average of six discounts on their Otto policy when they sign up discounts for things like enrolling: an automatic payments ensuring more than one car going paperless and, of course, being a safe driver. There are so many ways to save when you switch should once your customer with progressive you get unmatched claim service with twenty four seven support online or by phone. It's no
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scientific racism. Another was Julian Herman Louis Louis pointed out. But a lot of anatomical research that existed at the time focused only on white subjects, but did not actually say so. So the subjects of the particular piece of research would be described. Something like quote: normal healthy emails. Really only white people. Louis is one thousand nine hundred and forty two book, the biology of the negro picked apart. The idea that black Americans were somehow biologically inferior, but that book didn't really get widespread recognition. There was also Franz Boas, who is sometimes called the Father of American Anthropology and to be clear, his work was not without fault. He robbed indigenous people's burial sites in order to collect, remains to study and also sell,
also really stressed that human beings were fundamentally biologically equal with the differences among men being due to historical, environmental and developmental factors, and of course there was also W Montague Cobb himself throughout his car you're in every area he worked in. He was deeply focused on dispelling racist ideas and trying to insure racial equality, especially for black Americans. Heeded try to dispel the idea of race in general, but he did emphasise humanity's diversity and the social and historical factors that contributed to that diversity, rather than framing race, as biologically determined with some races, inherently superior to others. Cobb's most high profile
work to debunk racism through anthropology followed the nineteen thirty six Olympic Games held in Berlin. Germany, that's the Olympic Games at which Jesse Owens earned for gold medals. We actually are going to replace that episode of the battery classic coming up soon. Sometimes people interpret wins exceptional performance as undermining out of Hitler's vision of areas supremacy, but really there a lot of discussion about a winds winds at the Olympic Games that was used to back up the racist assertion that has athletic performance was due to his race and that black people's purportedly innate athletic abilities came at the expense of their intellectual abilities, and this
not just a belief that was circulating within the world of Physical anthropology. It quickly made its way into mainstream writing about athletics and race. Cobb worked to debunk this assertion examining and taking x rays of runners, including Owens himself in nineteen thirty six. He published race and runners, which began with an overview Recent performance by black runners before detailing other shifting demographic trends that had played out over the history of the sport he analyzed runners, physical characteristics and their performance. He noted that Owens had several physical traits that were purported. A more common in white runners, not the trade supposedly unique to black runners. That would have according to that widely circulated theory, given him an advantage, he can. Waited quote no particular racial or national group has ever exercised a monopoly or supremacy in a particular kind of event the pie.
Popularity of different events with different groups of people has and probably will always bury, though not necessarily in the same direction. He went on to say quote the The ex of champion negro and white sprinters in general and of Jesse Owens in particular, revealed nothing to indicate that negrofied physical characters are anatomically concerned with the present dominance of de grow athletes in national competition and the short dashes and the broad job. There is not a single physical characteristic which all the negro stars in question, having common, which would die. Minutely, identify them as negroes Cobb wrote other articles on this subject over the course of the next decade in more, including ones that were published in popular magazines. Free label
negro digested nineteen, forty seven, he wrote quote, science has not revealed a single trade particular to the negro alone to witches. Athletic achievements could be tributed in one thousand, nine hundred and thirty nine published the negro as a biological elements in the american population that was published in the Journal of Negro Education, and this was a broad look at black Americans. From an anthropological perspective, he wrote quote in the United States today: law and custom decree that any citizen who is known to have african blood, however diluted, is a negro. Consequently, from american negroes individuals may be selected who might serve as examples of nearly every physical type in the world from West African to Nordic. He also concluded that this diversity was temporary because in most of the U S, internet
just between black and white people were either socially taboo or legally band. He thought over time. The country's black population would become more homogenous. Of course. Those laws and social norms have certainly shifted in the decade since he wrote that paper they'll have to part episode on loving verses Virginia, which, as the Supreme Court decision, that struck down antimissile donation laws for more on that so so far this might all sounds pretty academic, and there is value in debunking racist ideas, especially considering that these ideas made their way into things like mainstream magazines and. School anatomy and physiology textbooks. I feel like we have read from such textbooks in previous episodes of the show that repeat these same basic ideas, but Cobb's work also focused on things that you might describe as
or immediately practical, like integrating the american Medical system com felt that the country segregated medical system was harming people of every race. In much of his work, Cobb noted that indigenous asian and hispanic and letting o patients were often treated so are we to black patience, but over all his work was more focused on the needs of black people than on these other groups. In Cobb's view, discrimination was slow, medical progress and lowering the quality of care for everyone, but especially for black patients. It was also restricting opportunities for black doctors. After the nineteen ten flexor report, my Harry and Howard, which we ve talked about before worthy only black medical schools and up until the nineteen forties, black doctors could only do their residencies and a handful,
of black hospitals afterward. They could only work in those same hospitals or in private practice, and this was holding back the entire medical field. So Cobb started this integration work in the nineteen forties by advocating for black doctors to be accepted on staff at white hospitals answer be allowed admission into whites, only professional societies, included the medical society of the District of Columbia and the American Medical Association there had
and other organizations established for black factors. Because of this exclusion that included the medico tragical society of the District of Columbia that had been established for a black physicians in eighteen, eighty four and the National Medical Association, which was established in eighteen. Ninety five. He also wrote specifically about workplace and social factors that affected black nurses, noting that black people had historically performed critical and often dangerous and unpleasant work during emergencies like wars and disease outbreaks, but then were denied the dignity of the title nurse because of their race.
He traced that history, through two nursing schools and professional associations, excluding black people and nineteen. Fifty seven Cobb, helped organised the First M Hotel National Conference on hospital integration, which was focused on integration all through the hospital system that patients, the staff, the administration, the residents and in turn, that teaching hospitals all of it. This conference was named for EM hotel, who was advisor to the third dynasty, Pharaoh Chaucer, who we ve talked about Michel before and later was worshipped as an egyptian God of medicine. The conference was sponsored by the National Medical Association Council on medical education and hospitals by the end of a lazy, peas, National Health Committee and by the medicos vertical society of the District of Columbia. It was held annually until nineteen sixty three. The conference became less necessary act
The passage of the Civil Rights ACT of nineteen sixty four, which Cobb had aggressively supported title six of the act reads quote no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to, discrimination under any program or activity. Receiving federal finance assistance than another law that cop supported made, that title apply to hospitals all over the country. That was these Social Security ACT. Amendments also called the Medicare and medicate ACT of nineteen sixty five, basically Medicare provided hospital insurance and medical insurance to people aged sixty five and older and Medicaid provided medical assistance for peace.
With low incomes. So the passage of Medicare and Medicaid meant that essentially, every hospital in the United States would be accepting federal financial assistance, in other words together, but Medicaid Bill and the civil Act essentially made hospital segregation illegal nation wide. This was one of them: reasons, the American Medical Association had opposed the Medicare bill, in fact the old, a member of a professional medical society who had openly supported Medicare was W Montague Cobb Cobb endorse the bill and testified on its behalf before Congress. When President Lyndon Johnson signed the legislation, Cobb was invited to witness the signing, and this was not the first time that Cobb had so publicly opposed the AMA back and nineteen forty six. He had
testified before Congress in favour of the National Health ACT, which would have created a national health insurance plan. Cobb endorsed the on behalf of the Epp, W C p before Congress, and he describes a bill as having the potential quote to close the gap between advances and medical care policy on the one hand, and the social, and not arrangements by which medical services are made available. On the other and his testimony, he described health conditions in the? U S, as quote far from satisfactory. With quote the plight of the negro Worse than that of the White, the AMA opposed this legislation and inaccurately branded it socialized medicine. It ultimately failed. Cobb's advocacy for black doctors and other black professionals
so extended beyond their data working environments in nineteen fifty five, the American Association for the advancement of science held its conference in Atlanta Georgia Cobb vigorously oppose this choice, a venue because it If this hotels were segregated, the a s worked out a compromise which was for black attendees to be allowed into the host hotels for meetings, but not as overnight guests. Instead, they would stay in Atlanta, University Cobb Boycott the meeting and the next year the a ass implemented, anti segregation policies for its conference locations cat, like a lot of the compromises we ve talked about on the show is not really common and the people it was offered you were like? Are you kidding me Cobb, advocated for the same change at the american those asian of anatomists. Two years later in nineteen sixty five, he travelled to Selma Alabama to support the physician who had volunteered to offer aid during the summer smog
we march. These are really just some of the biggest highlights of W Montague Cobb's career. He served as president of the medico tragical society of the District of Columbia for nineteen forty five to ninety forty, seven and then again from nineteen fifty one. In eighteen. Fifty four he served as editor of the Journal of the National Medical Association for twenty eight years, starting in nineteen, forty nine, and during that time he helped expand it from a temporary publication of the enemy to a respected medical journal in nineteen fifty seven he was named president of the American Association of Physical anthropologists. He served in that role for two years in nineteen sixty five, he sat on the executive Committee of the White House Conference on health. He was executive president at the end of lacy p from nineteen seventy six to nineteen eighty three and he was on the end, W C P board for thirty one years over the court
His career. He wrote more than one thousand one hundred papers in his field, as well as a series of two hundred biographies of black doctors for most of that time he also taught anatomy and shared the anatomy department. At Howard University, I am exhausted just reading that lists, so much Cobb's, wife, Hilda died and nineteen seventy six they had been married for forty seven years, a year later, Cobb played the role of w e b d boys and production called without a doubt, at the Kennedy Centre. This production was something his daughter, Amelia, Cobb Gray had compiled and directed, and this was his stage debut in nineteen. Eighty Cobb was awarded the hand Gray. A word from the American Association of Anatomists, which is its highest award, Cobb continued his advocacy into his very last year's in nineteen eighty two, the way I m C a plan to close its Anthony Bow and Branch in Washington D C,
and this was in Cobb's childhood neighbourhood, and it has also been the first branch that the why am CIA had established for black members. Cobb argued vocally against this closure, both because of the branches historical significance and because the neighbourhood itself was desperately in need of recreation and other services, the. Why am CIA ultimately agreed not to close the branch, but it did move it different facility citing the original buildings, disrepair and ninety ninety Debbie Montague Cobb was awarded the American Medical Association Distinguished service. A word he die. November twentieth of that same year, at the age of eighty six, in his own words quote. When I go down, I hope I'll go down still pushing for something in the forward direction. That is mind blowing levels of achievement I feel Yes, so lazy.
Also have listener Rio for us. I do. I have a listener- male, that's not about this episode, but its chairman to this episode, and it is from Samantha and some Addison High Holly and Tracy. First of all, I want a preface to see mail by saying what a big fan I am of the show. I love how ya highlight under represented voices and stories from the past. That being said, I think that something else at or more specifically didn't say, in a recent episode, bears attention and the episode John Dolphins, anomalous, color vision. You mentioned a study that demonstrated the differences and rates of color deficient vision between the sexes. I appreciate They are noted the difference between gender insects saying that gender does not always correspond to one's assigned sex at birth, and neither does sign sex at birth always correspond to one's chromosomal sex, which is the actual determining factor in this particular situation. Unfortunately, out at night
from the same new arms to the studies, treatment of race races, just as socially constructed as gender is, and in my opinion we are only talking about one but not other created the implication that raises biological. This false notion that races logical is something that many scholars and advocates have been pushing against for a long time. As I'm sure you both know the categories that humans constructors races, are largely arbitrary and have little to do with biology, for example, a personally black in that study could have had a majority of their ancestors be european, while the person labeled as hispanic or latino could have a wide range of african, european and native american ancestry there for saying a trait is more or less common and different racial group,
little about whether that difference is actually meaningful or associated with any differences in ancestral populations. In my opinion, it's dangerous to present studies such as these about the context of the social construction of race, as doing so can create the false impression that dividing humans, interracial groups is somehow natural again huge fan of the show. I just wanted to raise this issue, so you can keep this in mind for any future episodes touching on genetics or any other issues involving scientific uses of race. On a related note, I think that an episode on France Boas would be a great To explore this complexity surrounding his dedication to fighting scientific racism, while simultaneously being pretty inconsiderate of how his methods impacted native Americans is something worth discussing sincerely Samantha. Thank you for this emails them the usually not a hundred percent of the time you and I pick listener male based, I'm like who research the episode, and this was one that you research, but I was the one they made the comet, though
did out. For that reason, because that I raised the point about the study being about sex and not gender just cause, I wanted it to be clear what we were too about ray, and we talked about how that would have potentially shifted had that. That study, which has some years old, been done today with a more nuanced understanding of those yeah yeah and as far as the the reporting, race and ethnicity, of the study that was based on the self reporting of the parents. So, yes, this email is correct. Race is socially constructed, there is no biological or genetic support to the idea of human beings divided up into the racial categories that we talk
a lot like when the human genome project was completed in two thousand and three one of the findings that was really interesting was that there was more genetic diversity within people who would be described as part of the same race. Then there was within members of like between people of two different races. I actually feel like. This is something we ve talked about on the show before. Although I cannot recall what episode we ve definitely talked about shifting definitions of different racial, had a glorious and how people have intentionally influenced theirs. I remember that coming up in the bacon rebellion episodes and when we talked about Mackereel Garcia, so yes, races socially constructed. It also is something that has a real effect on people's lives.
Gives all the time, and there are a lot of diseases and conditions and other health related issues and trade that fall along demographic lines, which is something that's really important for doctors and patients. To I'll be aware of also when we start talking about things that our social instructs if you think about it for a while. You can just work yourself into a whole existential dilemma because, like crime socially constructed money socially constructed the academy socially constructed, these are all things that are made up, that we collectively I believe in rumour word, is assigned identification of any object in the entire world. The art art bad, socially constructed anyway, Cairum were when they just being like really it's everything everything is socially constructed. So anyway, I thank you again asked the man
for sending back email. I giving us an opportunity to like explicitly say that that racist socially constructed, if we have not explicitly said that on the show before in spite of having talked around it previously, You like to send us an email we're at history broadcast I hurt. Radioed outcome were also if our social media Agnes than history, that's where you ll find our Facebook and twitter and Pinterest and Instagram. You can subscribe to our show on Iheart Radio out an apple pie, gas and anywhere else, but you get back Stop you missed in history class, the production of Iheart radio for more part caps, I heard radio visit by her radio app added mankind's or wherever you listen to your favorite shows.
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Transcript generated on 2021-03-09.