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Walter Reed

2014-11-05 | 🔗

Reed did truly groundbreaking work into the causes and prevention of yellow fever, building on a foundation of other doctors and researchers. His work impacted public health and the American military's ability to work in tropical locations.

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
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look into stuff, you missed in history, has not come round him and I'm Holly brining, most people, at least in the United States, probably at these heard of Walter Reed, if only for the name of the army medical before, Came kind of notorious due to a really huge neglect scandal in the late you thousands it happen, usually you made a name for itself as the heart of military medicine in the United States, the hour, medical center actually closed and twenty eleven and was replaced by Walter Reed National Military medical center. So it's probably is eyes to no one that you know the major military medical center and the United States was named for an me doctor, then that was Walter. Reed Walter
It is truly ground breaking work into the causes and prevention of yellow fever, which was a hugely destructive disease to the american military and two other what areas and to civilians outside of the military world, both within and side of the United States, but you really didn't do this on his own, his accomplishments really belt on a foundation of other doctors and other researchers, but even so had a huge and drastic impact on public health, I'm only american militaries ability to work in tropical locations which had previously been fraught with all kinds of health problems. Sir Walter, we was born on September thirteenth of eighteen fifty one to lend you will sudden and for all by white red. Let me also Methodist, Minister and Walter had for older, siblings. Three brother and one sister named Laura, who was the oldest.
here's the elder readers administer the family spent most of Walter's childhood, moving from place to place as the Methodist church assigned him. Two different congregations, Walters older brothers, two of them Tom and James, bought for the south. There civil war, which ran through Walter's early teenage years after them. Was over, let me or requested that moved Charlottesville Virginia. He wanted his sons to be educated and living in Charlottesville meant that they could go to the University of Virginia, and his request was indeed granted. Unfortunately, though Walter's mother died not long after they arrived in Charlottesville and she was forty one at that Walter was only fourteen and it might have been her death that prompted him to really throw himself into his studies. He was just an exceptional through that, even before he started college Beside note, his father also remarried pretty quickly and the rest of the family quickly became very fond of his new wife.
not long after his mother's death. Walter now fifteen at this point start who, at the University of Virginia students nor he could not enroll until they were sixteen, but exceptions were made had older brothers attending until Walter Three older brothers were already in school there, although it that Walter was the only one of them to graduate originally intended to study classics, but soon made the move to the medical programme. Instead, this actually was largely due to financial and time reasons. It was faster and thus cheaper to get an MP than an Emmy, which probably see extremely strange to people who are familiar with how much it takes to get a medical degree. Today. Walter's, medical training touches on a number of previous podcast subjects. So could hovers used for study were provided to the school by resurrectionists who stole them, for
cool graveyards, which we talked about in our episode on the doctors riot Like many of the other historical doctor, as we ve talked about Walters round of medical study, included almost no practical or clinical work. So when he graduated on July, first eighteen sixty nine after two years and also as one of the youngest people to do it. He, to pursue another degree so that he can get more actual Amazon experience being a doctor and, firstly,. Doktor Red went to New York where he enrolled in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, got another empty there. In eighteen, seventy and Cynthia kara most of his science of medical classes in Virginia. This was mostly hands on and then he went on to do internships at hospitals around New York, A lot of reeds work during this time was with poor people and communities that didn't have a lot of medical resources, so he became
recently aware of the kinds of diseases that really caused crises in the world of public health, typhus type, Lloyd and yellow fever, for example, were all diseases that could just ravage poor communities and he started working to understand all of them. This expertise, only through during the four months he spent working at kings, county hospital in Brooklyn, New York in eighteen, seventy one, because that was the facility specifically for the poor. By eighteen. Seventy three, and at this point he was only twenty two rejoined Brooklyn Board of Health as an assistant, sanitary officer and this but he was too busy to start a private practice and he was still so young people didn't really seem to take him seriously red started now that he would ever be able to make the kind of change he wanted, since he could not seem to get people to respect his knowledge in the medical field, so
But he wasn't going to be able to make the kinds of strikes that he really wanted to. He eventually decided to join the army, medical core, which were a multi day, multi discipline affair January of eighteen. Seventy five afterward. He was commissioned as a first lieutenant at the age of twenty four and is all over professional. Parliament was going on red, had been courting a woman named Emily Lawrence, primarily three letters. He had met her visiting family in Murfreesboro North Carolina in eighteen, seventy four and he may her on April twenty fifth of eighteen, seventy six before he left for Arizona territory with the medical core. He actually dealer, and quite a lot about getting married. He had some worries about what life Going to be like for the wife of a frontier army doktor, he just sort of seemed learned a lot of ways, and so she had to do so
Anything including kind of implying that perhaps someone else was interested Inter so maybe he ought to get its act together. when he finally propose it was pretty sudden you basically proposed, and then they wedged the wedding into a window of time when he could actually make it too Murfreesboro to have the ceremony the newly didn't actually get to live together until the following November, when Emily met him in San Francisco. After taking a train which the side note had some sort of along the way across the country- and this was just the first of many separations. They would endure due to his work and they rode each other volumes of letters during these times apart. It was all through the first of many adventures in their marriage- Becker's says we. Mentioned earlier. A lot of his early career in the medical corps. and being a frontier doktor. He was moved from one post to another and
often their existence was really difficult and isolated, and a lot of the hospitals that he worked from were basically temporary structures meant to sort of service temper. we need out on the frontier they eventually had a son named Walter Lawrence. Emma daughter named Emily, who they called blossom Walter Senior most likely delivered his son himself as at that point they were station it for Apache on the frontier also living with them. For many years was a young native american girl named Susie, you read Treated for serious burns after some sort of intertribal battle, Susie that living with the family for about fifteen years, she was sort of it combinations, surrogate daughter and help around the house at first street was a frontier army doctor, as he said, moving from Garrison the garrison, mostly around the American West, these remote outposts
not have the sorts of facilities or resources that red needed to continue his studies of bacteria pathology. So here Sid, I leave of absence, is Tracy said a lot of these facilities were just temporary set up, so they were not going to have a lab where he could really do this work. Instead, He ended up transferred to Baltimore at a couple of points which allowed him to work at Johns Hopkins University Hospital Pathology Laboratory. You really monumental. Things happened in real life in eighteen, ninety three and we're going to talk about them after a brief word from a sponsor this episode of stuffy must then history glasses, brought to you by love book. If you ve ever wanted to share a love story with somebody, but you weren't really sure how to start. That is where love book comes in These are totally customizable books that you can give as gifts to the people that you love and care about, most people use them to list out the reasons why they love someone. You can
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even offers a membership programme. Now you will save immediately on your purchase today and then receive fifty percent on future purchases. Visit love book online, dotcom, Slash I heart and you're gonna receive a special twenty percent discount. That is only fur listeners again, that is love book online dotcom, Slash I heart to receive A special twenty percent discount to get back. To read a couple of big things, as we said before, the break changed his life in eighteen. Ninety, three one George or Sternberg, became the surgeon general and to the new surgeon, General established the army medical school hate, this kind of discreetly, because Congress was reluctant to spend money in the way. But financial panic that year, Walter was names to the army, medical schools faculty at this point have been promoted up through the ranks in the military to major. He was also appointed to be the.
reader of the Army Medical Museum and had become a Will he, member at Columbia University, which would eventually become George Washington University so after years of moving from place to place. He of the family and to Washington DC and while he continued to travel for his work? put an end to constantly uprooting the family to go to a new outpost. His early interest in public health played out in a study of the diseases that were most problematic to the military, so he studied title cholera, malaria, which was still pretty prevalent in the U S at the time and yellow fever and eighty nine five. He studied a malaria outbreak that happened at Fort Minor and at the Washington Army. Barracks is actually a fair amount of medical work going on at this time that correctly identified the cause of malaria as a parasite that was spread by mosquitos, but here the world. Information spread being much.
Limited than it is today. This had not caught old everywhere yet and read in particular, didn't think that the mosquito was the culprit in part because he had spotted a number of errors in the latest paper that was promoting that connection. He thought it was bad air, which is not surprising. Alot of people thought it was bad air and the world. Malaria comes from italian terms for bad air. and while he was definitely on the wrong track, he did dispel the idea that malaria was waterborne. He pointed out that healthy people in one ten were using the same water source as six soldiers in Fort Meyer and that eighty ninety I saw the highest number of malaria cases in years, even though a water filtration programme was in place, his Search wound up looking at all kinds of factors and found all kinds of power. then who got malaria and when. So even though he never arrived at the correct conclusions,
from all of it. It was useful data to have the same American war broke out in eighteen. Ninety eight and it only went on for roughly three and a half months and in the end, the United States had temporary control of Cuba and had troops stationed there. But this came with a number of problems. Cuba's tropical climate was home to several diseases that, U S, troops had little or no natural resistance to Walter he did extensive work pertaining to two of them. Void and yellow fever during this period, Secretary of WAR appointed a medical board, but he directed to study diseases that were prevalent on Cuba. The surgeon general also established aboard specifically to study, yellow fever, and for that board ray I read with tax to be head. He traveled back in between Washington in Cuba several times over the next several years, working with these diseases,
first typhoid fever, so not to be confused with typhus, which has spread by fleas. Typhoid fever is caused by bacteria salmonella typee, which has spread through feces. Today there, a vaccine for it, and it's usually treatable with antibiotics. But that was not true in the eighteen, hundreds, so tight, it is carried in the stores of infected people in its trans by contact in one way or another, with theirs infected story, That could mean flies crawling around on feces and then crawling around on food. They can. All transmitted when water or milk, or are contaminated with infected feces and people can continue to spread it even after recovered ally. the infamous typhoid Mary This time the military had huge sanitation procedures in place to try to prevent the spread of typhoid, but men. of them just more effective, they headed
with cleanliness and disposal of waste, but it still spread from one infected person to another camps, would be real Kate, it entirely for fear of contaminated water sources, although Reed was definitely involved and study and trying to come up with plans for how to prevent the spread of the disease. New latrine designs to try to keep the way away from other things. The primary reason there on it were Victor Vine and George Sternberg and unfortunately their work, really get to a satisfactory. Inclusion during reads lifetime. They they didn't managed to wipe out typhoid. It was basically endemic in the military and efforts to clean up after it just were not enough in the end vaccines. Developed, not long after the turn of the century, that a lot more to stop the disease than all of their hygiene efforts, which is not sufficient.
in the end he took a much greater lead in the fight against the yellow fever and his work with yellow fever. I wonder being a lot more effective than the work the team was doing to try to control typhoid, yellow fever was a huge problem in Cuba, as well as in parts of the United States in less tropical part. World. The disease was fairly seasonal with huge outbreaks when the weather was warm. It's a hammer Jake Disease, that causes fever, joint pain, vomiting, hemorrhaging, bloodshot eyes and jaundice. A yellow fever had tuning with one was yellow Jack, which obviously was because of the jaundice And the other one and heads up this is growth. Was the black vomit because In the end, the stages of the disease people would bullied into their digestive system throw that up and what they threw up was black because of the enzymes interacting with the blood.
One of the worst parts of disease was that the symptoms often cleared up after a few days which made people think they were going to survive. But then the would come back as the liver failed in the internal hemorrhaging started. It was absolutely horror I, in the mortality rate, was up to eighty five percent. The killing theory before Walter Reed really got involved was that yellow fever was spread by foe mites and if you ever played plague ink either that the external objects that are capable of hanging onto and spreading disease. So, when native Americans contracted smallpox. After being given blankets that had been used by smallpox, patients, the blankets were full rights. however, some doctors already thought: yellow fever was spread by Mosquitos before Walter Reed got involved cuban doctor those one Finland had first theorize that yellow fever was spread by mosquitos as early as eighteen, eighty one here,
hundred and four different experiments between eighteen, eighty one and eighty ninety eight to study the diseases spread. Most of families. Subjects were immigrant workers who allowed themselves to be bitten by mosquitos that had bitten, yellow fever, patience and it may seem Weird that people would be ok with this exposure without some kind of other incentive to make it more enticing, but We'll fever was so widespread that pretty much everybody thought if you were in Havana long enough for you, it eventually get it. So a lot of people were like I might as well get it over with and actually have a doctor nearby. What's going to happen to me,. but why even figured out which specific species he thought was at risk? the carbon household mosquito that time was called, collects. Bessie at us, and now it's called Eighties, Egypt, I and I hope I have pronounced that remotely right, but people did not seriously. This was in part because some of his experiments failed. He thought the mist
no by was basically akin to a dirty needle. It was taking infected material from one person and putting it into another person. He asked not the sickest patients were going to be the ones most likely to transmit the disease to the mosquito felt. This was not really how yellow fever spreads and we'll talk about that more in a moment. But that meant that the you know, a lot of his experiments did not result in somebody getting yellow fever and people were sort of like while you're claiming it's the mosquitoes but the mosquito. But back, are you not sick? So you don't know you're talking about, Albania, this is our marine. You may know me from Chelsea lately, shameless or as Regina Sinclair on insatiable to tell you about my pot gas? Will you accept this rose, which is new to the eye heart radio podcast network on this We recap every season, the bachelor franchise. Yes, that includes the bachelor, the bachelor rat and, most importantly, bachelor in Paradise. Each person
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remember what a fourteen year old version of yourself, if you could write to that kid, what would you say? I'm Chelsea arson join me on my podcast, dear young rocker were each week. I write a letter to my younger so as she brings us back into the intensity of adolescence, falling in love with their favorite song. The way only a teenager can getting up the nerve to join a ban struggling with anger and body issue, crushing on someone so hard and can't believe them experiencing how truly awful a first class can be feeling like you, could, first waning all anger or sadness, or both in any second making a decision that could cost you, your friends, your ban and your entire social area, wrong, you're, not alone. You lived through it. We are living through it. Now you got this kid. During and after some soup and double Elvis, production has created a hosted by mutual citizen and executive produced by June Bremen of disgrace, land listen to dear young rocker. On the I hurt radioactive apple pie, costs or wherever you get your podcast Walter Reed for his part, worked with
team of other doctors, including Jesse Liz Year, Aristide's agreement. and James care on. They worked not just off a fiddle: mosquito theory, but also, of actual mosquito eggs that suddenly had collected, he figured out if you dried out mosquito eggs, they would still hatch immature with the right temperature and humidity so using families. Harvested mosquito eggs reading his tea, ran a series of experiments, they patch the mosquitoes from the eggs, and then they allowed them to bite someone who was infected with yellow fever. This is namely tedious time consuming process. They would, the mosquito in a test tube then put the tests to mouth Down on somebody skin and then like wait for the mosquito tat gets abiding, they sort of tap the side. the test tube. If the mosquito was this perched on it, really doing anything, really. This is like hurting cats. Mosquitoes do not feed on
people on cue survived three of an episode of breaking out on the name of Mr they were trying to get a skunk to spray them and they just couldn't is like- nature doesn't always do what you want in the letter of yes. Well, it will also remind people of the saw bones episode about self experimentation because they they talk about this part in in that episode. If you are a father and spam and the team approach. This in a methodical away is methodically. She could be well trained a tap on a mosquito to get it to bite someone. A vast departure for much of the other research that we talked about on his part cast did not use unwilling orphans and prisoners as test subjects. They used volunteers. These people gave their consent- for him, and they were compensated for their participation, dollars just for participating in another and another hundred dollars if they actually got sick. This basic
revolutionary. In the field of medical research, it's probably the first time that informed consent became a thing in western A study and research and through these spearmen. They discovered a number of things about yellow fever transmission, including why some affinities experiments failed. It became as they went? The mosquitoes could only pick up the virus from a sick persons, blood two or three days after infection, and it took two weeks of before enough of the Virus- produced inside the mosquito for someone it bit to get sick. So there was an incubation period that had not been accounted for. And after that, the mosquito could then spread the disease for a couple of months as a fine now This is why mosquitoes dont transmit HIV Aids doesnt reproduce inside a mosquitoes body. The way yellow fever does Research was overwhelmingly successful, but it came at a cost jobs
Carol when other research, as you mentioned earlier, was infected with yellow fever and he almost died, and this is for a port because the mosquito in question had not even in about three days of them, trying to coax it fights and one and they were afraid that if the mosquito starve to death, they were going to lose important data. So sort of an active, just desperation. What reportedly have Does that James Carol? Let it by him there's all other weird thing in my head: swirling about the idea of trying to keep mosquitoes as PET Solomon. Some have co research very strange to think about Jesse Wazir was infected with yellow fever and he in fact did die. It's unclear whether this is part of an experiment, or if this was an accident. Reports are contradictory. Some say that he did in fact himself on per
and others, say that he was bitten by a mosquito while working and thought it was a species that did not carry malaria regardless. His work before his death was absolutely critical to this, from it and he left no books full of accurate, detailed data when he died and without these notebooks the project probably would have failed. It could not have continued without his knowledge. research did not immediately gain traction back in the United States in Italian, Doktor named Giuseppe, centrally theorize The basilisk caused yellow fever and the even after this was disproved quite conclusively. He continued to insist that his, so let us be named as the culprit and this distracted from them. problem, then, when we say conclusively this eating it about things like during autopsies of people who had definitely died of yellow fever. His Philip was not present an
And we would like it if this is not a bit his ad the fee for his bacillus, which it was called his bacillus really sidetrack things however, soon the army instituted mosquito control programmes and yellow fever rates in Havana plummeted. it states Army was also soon able to get into areas where they previously couldn't, because yellow fever was just too entrenched and basically trying to send troops there would have to everyone to get sick and die An example is that the building of the Panama Canal really couldn't have happened without mosquito control programmes to control the spread of yellow fever. Red came back from Q. in nineteen o one and he continued to lecture on yellow fever. Here honorary degrees from Harvard in the University of Michigan, he wasn't librarian of the surgeon generals, library in November of nineteen o tube, while
he died on November. Twenty third nineteen o to you after developing parent nighters, switch, followed a case of appendicitis and his death came up what a shock, or at least the illnesses severity came as a shock. His symptoms just work as areas, as would have been expected for a case of appendicitis that was advanced as advanced as it was so when he Kay, when it became clear that he was critically ill, people were really shocked by it. A vaccine for yellowfin was developed in the nineteen twenty and We noted earlier, while for Red Army medical Center was named for him and for his work. I knew very little of him prior to this, so I'm glad you This one I had I, but have we were driving around on price Billy Memorial Day, and there was a thing
have on public radio and I sort of caught the tail end of it and was just ass of aid by the story and then, as things happen, I didn't think about it again until recently, when I was trying They come up with an episode topic and then I could not find I have no idea what the story was that I heard on an pr. I will search to all kinds of things to try to find it, so I can listen to all things. You know what I'm talking about, please even the link. So I can hear the whole thing. Would you like to read a listener mail? I would from hurry now and so Corina sent us this male, coincidentally, between when we recorded our episode on Sylvia Rivera. and when that episode came out and in the Silver Rovera episode, we talk as briefly on asylum,
it's basically a mention of an organization called the young lords, and so this was a completely a coincidence that this male happened to come in at this point, which is why I wanted to read it and Corina, says hello: tracing Holly, huge fan of the show we can company honoured me to inform work. She says: I'm writing because of the time of year, where we officially celebrate latino heritage by September, fifteenth to October fifteen, I am a latina from the Bronx and I have a great topic you Ladys can talk about the young lords fortunate enough to meet one of the New York City, young, Lord member Miguel, Mickey Melendez, and he inspired beyond words the union lords, was an organization of activists dedicated to human lives, and the independence of Porter Rico matters from an organisation about the young. Lord. Reported: the city government, hundreds of complaints directed the Lincoln Hospital facilities since the hospital
terrorists to the police, but as Savior store people in inner city, living in horrible conditions and ninety seven Lincoln Hospital in the south. Bronx was one of the worst in the city. The building was falling apart. children were getting lead poisoning, while hospitalized there. They were from the emergency room, the young lords and a group called the eight hour. You M health, revolutionary unity movement established a ten point. Health pro I'm calling for, among other things, community work control health institutions poisoning, enemy, anemia testing and daycare centers lords, also received and reported the city government, hundreds of complaints directed the Lincoln Hospital facilities, since the hospital failed to respond to the great decided to take stronger measures, the city and the staff are not going to help us sick. Then the young Lord believed it was up to the community to do so.
During the early morning, hours of July, Fourteenth nineteen, seventy, the young lords and a patient work. A group called Think Lincoln Committee took over Lincoln Hospital during the twenty four hour or two over the young. Lord ran health programmes in a building. The hospital was not even using here, They held tv and lead, poisoning, detection and set up a day care that will later be put the service eventually. The police surrounded the hospital and the young Lord slept peacefully. The offensive exposed the terrible conditions seen an inner city hall but all the building Lincoln Hospital within have been condemned by the city twenty years before, and nothing has been done to address this problem We ve got a promise from Ben Mayor drawn Linsey to construct a new hospital on EAST, a hundred and forty nine street. In the end, the take over of Lincoln Hospital was a victory for the community that it be great. If you could talk about this on the show thanks Corina. and, as I mentioned earlier, I wanted to read this because we mention the young words
basically a sentence and are episode about Sylvia Rivera that we really didn't talk about much of their activities or their philosophy or anything was basically a porter weakened nationalist groups. So there is definitely a much broader story about the young, Then just this one story, but I wanted to read that just this one story, because we had not really talked about that and the episode it was kind of from the major subject matter and she It's so much great information in their email Oh yeah, like that, like a mini episode and it's the footman, she didn't really off of job. So, if you would like write to us with other stories about things that we mention. Somehow have have intuitive, but we are going to mention later what happened here.
If you want to tell me what was up with those Walter Reed episode that I heard five minutes of memorial day, we can we can write to us, but history bypass. It has two weeks. I press also increase the facebook tat flashed in history and on twitter, innocent history. tumblr is missing history on tumblr dot com and were also I'm pinterest. Pinterest accomplished list industry bleed have a spiritual store where you can buy certain Iphone cases, some things, and that is that list in history, that wretched If you like to learn more about what we talked about today, come to our parent companies website, that is, our stuff works dot com and that the word Walter Reed into the search bar. You will find the article ten ways: Army doctors prevent troop almost We can also come to our website where we could have links to every single episode. We have an archive every up ever showed. For all of our two thirds, where you can see the sources that we use to research facilities,
We can do all that and a lot more has therefore sent home than with the mystery more on this. Thousands of other complex networks. It seems like it should be easy, but it's not just getting out of bed and getting your day started, trying to accomplish everything you need to do in your day that to do list as a lot easier when you're getting news stories and music to lift your mood and preparing for the day ahead, get connected to the things that make you laugh and make you think or make you want to reach out and share with a friend every morning with us. It's Elvis Doran in the morning show listen to us on cue, one or two or anywhere in the world on the Iheart Radio, APP.
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