« The Happiness Lab with Dr. Laurie Santos

BONUS: Think Yourself Happy (LIVE from Yale)


Really concentrating on the emotions and physical sensations you are experiencing right now can make you happier. Join Yale mindfulness expert Dr Hedy Kober as she introduces a live audience to guided meditation. She shares her tips on being mindful with Dr Laurie Santos and explains the new scientific research that shows the benefits of this ancient practice.

For an even deeper dive into the research we talk about in the show visit happinesslab.fm

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This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Hello happiness, lab listeners. I want to tell you about a new podcast. I think you'll, like it's called the last archive and it features one of my favorite new Yorker writers. The Harvard historian Jill Acquire Jill asks the big question who killed truth. She looks for clues and events across the twentieth century from a brutal death in Burma to the invention of the lighted. After to the release of the polio vaccine, the last archive is, unlike any podcast you ve heard before it brings history. The life with archival tapes, intrepid field reporting, an old timey radio drama reenactments. The last archive unfurled, like a classic nineteen thirties mystery but takes on the big issues of today. Wouldn't you like to know who killed truth then check out the last hour. Five brought you buy. Pushkin industries have included a trailer the end of this attitude. You can subscribe today on Apple Spotify or ever you get. Your pot casts if you listen to other episodes at happiness. Lab you'll probably learn that
coming happier often involves changing your behavior things like to be more social, getting in it of cardio taking time to x means gratitude the researchers the all of these things will improve your while being if you do them, the problem is. We actually have to do these things and if you're, Like me, they're alive, times when you know what you're supposed to do. Really would rather do something else. You may It's a good idea to head out of the house and see a friend if you're feeling down, but It's raining in your already on the couch being so, feels like a chore. You swear you're gonna, get up early to practice. Guitar hit the Jim in the morning, but when that alarm pop goes off there definitely some days you rather stay in bed. These of moments these fields, of desiring something you know, isn't consistent with your bigger goals. They come up with ever we're trying to change our behaviour for the better building happier habit often means not getting what we want in the moment and I can feel pretty yucky
it's the reason many of us give up working on the goals we desire most, but what, if I, hold you. There was a way to outsmart. Those little moments of discomfort We sail through them. What if there were The strategy, a strategy that both ancient and backed up by modern science that allows you to push through positive behaviors, when you really want a backslide, and using this technique also had a host of other health benefits like reducing inflammation Creasy stress levels, improving concentration and even making you happier and less anxious. It's also totally free only involves a couple minutes a day. The strategy is and how it works. We're going to talk with an expert. My friend and colleague here at you, the neuroscientist doctor, Eddie Coker, and to make it even more fun will do all of that in front of a live studio. Audience here on campus, so welcome to the next installment of the happiness lab twenty slash. Twenty
so we started with sure for the audience a little bit of a quiz I want you to answer whether in the last two months or so how many of you have experienced no stress at all, no frustrations, nothing on the count of three we're gonna clap ready, one, two: three, not narrow yearning I'll get your second question on the count of three. I would ask you to clap if you have experienced a little bit of stress, maybe a few frustrations, but nothing more than that ready one, two three guy now, I'm going to ask those you to clap. If, in the last two months, you've experienced a lot of stress to the point that is sometimes made it kind of hard to function. One two three parents, I'm here and had he most people are going with their experiences.
Stress. I know you use this question. A lot in your talks is this kind of a common answer that you got very very common answer so say that nine times out of ten, the most clapping that I get or them hands are raised. Four have experienced a lot of stress this, a very common thing to report and set about why this is such a bad thing, because I mean again and your feeling, a lot of stress mean your anxious and so on. But stress really has an incredible impact nobody is right has stressed, is actually known to have a toxic effect on most of our bodily systems, stresses designed as a physiological response to a real threaten the environment, and since we are actually somewhat ancient speech as we were in the savanna, maybe running away from a predator who might eat us right. So the stress response in our I was really me to mobilise various physiological system so as to run to allow us to fight it.
It really designed to let us prepare for exams or a deal with bad teaching reviews, and so when we experience the same kind of physiological responds in the context of these everyday experience is that we now have in our modern day on time Actually we have them for many many days in a row that physiological responds actually toxic to multiple physiological system is also really bad for us achieving our goals right. You know when you think of we're here around the new year. We want to be achieving our nearest resin She's gonna be behaving better, but, as things get more stressful bats even harder, it so a charter, and it's so much harder, because in the moment, even if we haven't been stressed for months and we're just stressed in this moment, stress interferes with our. Ready to think so. We know that people in there really really stressed a cognitive performance is actually impaired It interferes with our ability to control our urgent controller behaviors and its and has even to fears with our bodies functioning in the way they are supposed to, because, again the blood is going out of your brain and out of your gut and
to your assignment I'll see, you can run away and that's really not effective in what we were trying to do is, let's say, study for an exam, and so every here is feeling really stressed our we do. Are we just gonna be stuck feeling stress all the time or is there another path, yes. I think that the Great news is that there are things that we can all do to reduce our stress, and I think that today we might folks on one of them in particular that I study, which has mindfulness mean if your mindful does not just mean you don't have any stressing. Mindful, as we often think about it in mice? I say we me from my colleagues people in my lab we haven't think about. It is a two component process, which is a component of attention. Retention is really oriented to what is happening right now. So in this moment it might be the sound of my voice if you're here, this room? It might be looking at me in lorries sitting here in the front of the room. I may be the sensation of your, but on a chair or your back on your hands touching each other. Thing that might be happening in this moment and your attention is oriented to it. Instead of thinking about some they haven't you earlier, something that might happen later. You're really right here and then pour second component, is really a component of attitude and that's a particular kind of
it's an attitude, that's really open its curious and its accept this moment, exactly as it is when we think about doing that moment by moment. We might consider that accepting this moment as it is noticing it right fully acknowledging everything that may be happening, including may be the fact they have deadlines in your stress about getting into a class. Are you have some kind of problem at work? If you have a job and you're letting everything that's already happened be exactly as it is you're not fighting with it. You're, not arguing with it you're not wishing for it to be different. You just letting it be and the remarkable thing that happens when you can really be in that state. Is it really Opens you up to make better decisions about the next moment, and in doing so we see that people actually experience less stress and also that they make better decisions, and so this is an idea has been around for a long time you're come up, I am far from. First reason you come up with a so mindful is really rooted in a very ancient british tradition so thousands of years ago, as the story goes, the Buddha sat under a tree and
came enlighten when he considered all of the human condition and one of the solutions that he came up with for how we might exit this human condition. That is full of suffering is that we might practice violence and Michael's really a set of part of a set of practices within the buddhist tradition. It's not the only one, but we entails practising interacting with our lives in this way. That doesn't argue with what is already here. My understanding is that mindfulness comes through certain set of behaviour is right. You kind of have to practice. It yet so you can bring mindfulness into any particular moment in being what to do that with more ease being able to do that, almost more automatically does require practice. Michael's practices I'm going to the gym so, at this moment. Even if you ve never go to the gym before you can probably lift some wait right, there's some amount of way they could already left. But if you practice lifting Wade's, you can suddenly start. Time, lifting heavier and heavier weights, think about mine was in a very much the same way so you can be mindful- and this moment just might not be as easy to sustain it over time and if you want
it easier for you to bring mindfulness into many moments, especially difficult moment. Stressful moments, you would benefit from practising it overtime and that former practice is often considered. Meditation visit this kind of formal practice where you're really trying to be mindful except the present moment. Yes, I think that one can practice mindfulness across many moments in the day and a way to really practice kind of like you can you know, I'm practicing lifting something right now to those of you can see me, I'm lifting a bottle of water inside just practice, lifting something much as you would add. The gym you can do it moment by moment across a Dan when you're washing the dishes just washed the dishes notice how it feels, except the sensation of water in your hands, and even if you'd might notice some thoughts about hey, don't washing the dishes. You can notice that as well and continue doing it anyway and if you actually want to practice really seriously, you go to the jam, you don't just lift the occasional bottled water you set some time and you go you dedicate that time to exercising, and you do it with a most intention that can bring forth and its us with mindful spectres cease at a time
You decide how long you're gonna do it for a new during at times that your intention to practice it with the most focus that you can bring in so sometimes when people here these terms, gotta mindful nurse or meditation, conjures up, ok Heavy Debbie via you know, like dude, with long hair and roads and kind of like a baby you're not like long here. That's I've! Gotta, look like it suitable scientist rate, and so What about how? Sometimes these can concepts get a bit of a bad rap from people personnel One of the things that are really interesting is that I think that mindful gets a bad rap, partly because its often being exe waned and contacts that are not necessarily here at Yale by scientists. It's often talked about, but people who might actually resemble cookie dippy. Do so long, hair and rose, I think what me and many other people in my field are trying to do is to act bring some serious inquiry, serious teaching and Syria science to bear on this ancient eastern tradition and what I hope,
that achieve is the idea that, even though something might have been understood first by people who are a little bit, he be dippy. They might actually be more serious than you might imagine and might benefit you, even though it might not be your natural orientation to engage summit the best way to show people what this experience of mindfulness is like is to try it out audience. Are you ready to try a little quick meditation are a heavier one issue: orchestra rates to those of you who are here, I'm going to recommend that you first get comfortable in your chair and close your eyes. A few are listening to this podcast, not here might even be driving on your. Can you please don't close your eyes it's very port, and no to really try to bring a sense of attention to this moment and again you can get, may be comfortable in your chair. If you close your eyes, you can also noticed maybe your facial muscle relax a bit. We often talk. Is meditation about kind of carrying a dignified life,
and having your head higher than your shoulders, you're back should be somewhat erect, maybe almost noticing, as if there's a string pulling your head up to the ceiling and, as you are doing, this maybe take twenty breath to prepare a now move your attention to the physical sensation of the breath, wherever you feel it most strongly in the body and again those of you who are listening. If you are not able to notice your breath, because our so much going on you actually use your visual field as your object of meditation that ideas just pick some physical element. In your experience and just at your intention to focus on that for the next few minutes, as you do that, and especially for noticing the breath, it can just noticed a spontaneous movement of the breath. Everything inside us, an outside us is moving all the time. Experience is constantly shifting moment is moving into moment.
Just using the breath or anything else that we might choose as an anchor as a sample element of our experience to focus on for the next few minutes. Remember were just practicing and if you're noticing the movement of the breast dont tredick injured and anyway, just pay attention to it, and here is a key part.
Notice that your mind is wandering just noticing even see if she can accept it. My mind wondered and then firmly but gently bring your attention back to the physical sensation in a breath Mcgann. If you notice your mind wandering to Snowden mind wandering, can even ask yourself: can I be ok with Sloman, where I noticed that my minded something that was not in my intention and then again gently and firmly bring your attention back during.
And when you ready, you can open your eyes, come back comeback, come so stop your fingers, if your mind wondered at least once during this exercise. Some thing everybody here, snap their fingers. That is really too mind. Wandering is what minds do it's the normal state actually of our existence and the practice what we did Here's that I asked you to set the intention to notice something else right to pay attention to something else, and if you notice it, your mind was wandering than your mind was doing not what you intended for it to do right. It was kind of going off script and the practice is to notice that it happens, and let that be- and let that go right. It's already done it's in the past, we can't change that your mind wandered. I can't change that my mind wonders and I can notice it happens and in that moment practice noticing rate. That moment is actually the moment we
and from the most. What we would like to do over and over and life is too weak, up her wandering and pay attention to where we are and to accept the fact that it has wandered into developed this faculty of attention in the faculty of acceptance, the skill to let things that have already happened, be as they were, to let this moment be as it is, and move on to the next and then that as you developing skills. You also learn a whole lot of things about yourself and women. Also learned that we're not our thoughts than I thought kind of do their own thing, that we don't really control where they go and that that happens in that we might learn a new way of being a way in which, when things go out of our control, we can just let that be, and then focus on what to do in the next moment and then come back to doing what was in our intention to begin with, whether its to study, Her mind is wondering about something else. It were upset about
either we are faced with some news that we didn't expect and we need to figure out what to do next to make our lives go back in the direction that we intended is. Are you talking about? All these benefits is always a kind of a politically, but these are the kind of benefits you ve, seen personally, I first meditated many many years ago, even before college, just a few times, because I was invited to do it in the context of a yoga class, and I did it faithfully. While I went that your question and I moved to go to college Colombia and I abandoned the pact- is completely because it was hard and is working and I found a too difficult and overwhelming, and then I was reintroduce to it a few years later and what happen, then, is that I really learn to engage with it in a way that almost immediately I notice made me better made my life better made my experience easier. I was going through a lot of stress the times really really difficult period and I notice that when I walked out of my mind, false practice, I felt calmer at my day, what better faded it in the morning and that over time and my focus got better,
and that my ability to deal with things happening outside of my control was really much moved in a lot of them. Motivation that I had then, especially in the absence of any evidence, are real Search on mindfulness, I was really motivated by kind of my own first person, science. It worked for me and I kept doing it so you see, The benefits of Michael Spore also learning that this isn't just U. Science is really showing us. Mindfulness is doing incredible things, far brains and for our bodies, but we accept take a break for going to hear about the science. When we come back The happiness loud will be back in a moment. I welcome that We ve heard a little bit about the history of mindfulness, a meditation in some of the personal benefits Hetty, but you seeing, but I want you to take me into the empirical work. What has this
it's really shown us about how meditation changes, the brain and the body. So there is now not these studies but met. I now see that your studies of studies showing that mine for an effective for depression for anxiety for substances, disorders and first summit, disorders as well. Reducing the suffering of people on a day to day basis released have a life that is full of struggle and beyond that, and actually some of the first research on mindfulness was people who didn't have any farmer psychopathology, but we're just stressed people with chronic pain, but who have normal everyday life, stressors expense instrumental improvements where the practice of mindfulness and I'm not saying that mining as for everyone or for every single condition out there, and the data are actually quite strong that if you take a mine, course learn how to meditate that you might experience less stress, more happy it's better well being and a reduction in symptoms like depression, anxiety, and so you ve shown it
one of the reasons mindfulness and meditation. In particular, can be so powerful. Is it it's really changing the way our brain functions on autopilot great, when we have people sit in a brain scanner? Typically, a functional magnetic resonance. Imaging Skinner after my and dont ask them to do anything in particular in those moments to things happen. The first thing that happened is that people's mine wonder. We know that we talked about that and the second thing that, can see in the brain scan themselves is that there is a network of regions. I get recruited in those moments of mind wandering and we actually have come to call those. The default mode network and that never regions is really reflective of the default state of mind, which is to wander and a kind of a man and Mmmmm tobacco and right. We all know that there is almost like a treaty set up it sitting. On my shoulder constantly commenting on everything. That's going on Will we can not only experience that as humans there's also a network or a pattern of brain activity that is associated with that kind of default mode of the brain? in that default, more network is significantly affected by the practice of meditation. So study in my lab, we recruited individuals who were experiencing editors- people
he had for many many years. We asked them in the scanner to both meditate some of the time and also to just lie there and do nothing in particular, and we also created a very well matched group of control participants. You ve never meditated before, and we ask them to do the exact same thing and when we compared brain activity between the two groups, so. What we found is and those individuals who meditated showed significant results, and in brain activity. In that default, more network and also altered connectivity within that network, and that was significantly different from those very well matched controls who ve never meditated. They also importantly report less mind wandering and the thing that really cool is that those individuals meditated for many many years, and average number of hours at they. Meditated is ten thousand hours. That's a lot of meditation, which really that other labs have now recruited individuals who have meditated much less. In some cases, Well we're randomize to meditate for just three days and again, their brain activity was measured in what they reported. Is that the group of individuals who just meditated for three days?
starting to show the same changes in brain network connectivity within the default mode network we were seeing in the experience monitors suggesting that the same pattern that we see in peace medicated lot actually starts changing after much much less practice, which is pretty quick as it means within a couple days of meditation, you really changing them out of concentration, that your brain can do. Kind of naturally, rate Yes, I'm really interested in what happens to people right when they start meditating, because I realized that, while it's really interesting for everybody to know about these expert editors, that's a little bit like talking about olympic athletes rate who really practices for a really long time, most people- we want to know. If I start meeting tomorrow morning to see benefit, and the Good NEWS in the answer is absolutely ass. We start looking at what we call a minimal dose right, the first time that anybody's ever meditated. After just ten minutes of meditating for the very first time their cognitive performance got up just a little bit better and better than the control group hooted. Another activity during those ten minutes, a caveat these data that again across these multiple studies. We also show
people were the very very extreme end of neurotic, as I'm Self report introduces in which is kind of the tendency to have negative emotion and judge your experience alot those people actually. On benefit from the first ten minutes of mine from us, and this is simple because one just showed us there's. Individual differences are not everybody benefits to the same degree and not everybody benefits immediately, but it also gives us. Another avenue of researchers for working on now to try to understand what is the minimal those for these people, who don't benefit from just ten minutes that to meditate twice to they start benefiting after three times were still working on figuring out, but this I think that what the benefits and in your talking about these benefits in terms of concentration rather more attentive and so on, there is also a motion or benefits as well right. We get a happiness boost from this kind of mindfulness practice yes, there's a few different ways to think about the happiness boost one way to them. By the happiness is it actually is directly related to the degree to which mindful practice reduces mind wandering so there's really. There's that was done by met killing worth Indian Gilbert hovered some years ago, where they ask people to users
my phone and they a them a few times a day and ask him to report. Amongst other things. What are you doing? what activity are engaged on and was your mind wandering when the he went off and what they do so It is a people's minds, wander all ought, in fact, people's mine were wondering almost fifty percent of the time that they were being cute and doing almost every single activity, even during sex, which is pretty remarkable, I think, and what was where's that they discovered that, to the degree the people's mine wandered. That was related to being unhappy, and that's suggested. We can reduce mind wandering mindfulness might not only make you more mindful, but it may also make you happier because your mind wandering less another ways by reducing stress stress is not a happy experience. In fact, for most people stresses the very reverse of experience and self over we can reduce our stress levels. That is another way of saying their becoming happier than becoming less stressed. Another way, think about it. The we think about sometimes is In the moment, we found that when people are mindful of a negative experience, just in the moment when they come into the lab, we might induce a negative experience. We ve done this with either very
Glory images that often make people feel quite negatively, and we ve also done this with physical pain. Specifically. What we see in the context of opinions is it we see reductions and activity in brain regions that are typically associate with pain and that are sensitive to rising temperatures, and that suggested some. They're just telling us that there feeling less negatively or their feeling less pain, but we actually see a reduction in the neural pain, signature in terms of their brain activity, and so that really is consistent with the idea that there actually experiencing lesbian and this benefit of meditation so important, because when we think about trying to achieve happiness, only thinking about trying to achieve our goal becoming better people, often to doing that involves doing something that makes us feel a little uncomfortable or kind of painful. Nowhere in our new year's resolution- seasons- everybody's exercising, you know they get out of bed in the morning when the bed is all cozy and stuff. That's an uncomfortable, and the claim is that, through this practice of being mindful of that discomfort, you can kind of Magically overcome release can be with it.
What are you saying magically because even to me, sometimes the benefits of the fact. Is she like MAGIC, Anna It's actually not magic at all, in the sense that if you you can learn to tolerate the fact that your mind does sometimes things that are unexpected and often adversity over and over, and you learn to accept it and you learn to let it go and move on and that action of letting go of something that happened. It's unpleasant and moving on. Is exactly what we need to do. What you're describing right to tolerate the fact that it's really not fun to wake up an hour earlier to go running, or it's really not fun, to go to the gym and lift these really heavy weights or any kind of practice right, not smoking, anymore, feeling, withdrawal symptoms. All of these things my do in our new year's resolution. They require us to tolerate some discomfort around these new behaviors at we're trying to acquire, and if we learned by practising mindful us to tolerate our discomfort, we can then apply to all of these other elements in life that we might one improve and is a practice that you and others have called.
Urge surfing? I love this terms of what is urge, sir, to urge serving ISM is afraid that often used in the context of substances disorders to describe musing. The mindful skill in the presence of of urges are craving and cravings an incredibly common experience right. So if you ve ever experienced giving funny thing, please clapping Hence I mean what you ask you what your craving, but I could get us in trouble, so everybody here with cutting their hands- and this is consistent with very large scale. Epidemiological studies show that pretty much ninety nine percent of individuals report the Bay crave something sometimes cravings. Incredibly common experience. We all know what it feels like and the idea of the urge surfing exercise as it. You just sit there and noticed the craving and actually what you might notice as at craving her, an arc like most emotions where it will rise. It will reach a peak and at some point, we start coming down by itself and in noticing and accepting the craving as it is. We might notice it
returned, the craving itself actually comes down, and even in the moment we might notice it comes down. And in my lab we ve done these kinds of studies, especially with cigarettes, smokers and with food, where we asked people we actually induce craving. So we and you guys all know how people might induce craving for food riots This is what food ads are all about. We show you picture of a yummy, Berger and immediately go now looks yummy. I I have that and then you might actually go and get the Berger, and so we do something like that in my lab, where we show people pictures of food or we show if their cigarettes muckers, you show them pictures of the other people smoking and we know this increase is people's craving and then we might. Ass and to use one of a variety of strategies? One of them might be mindfulness, so we might ask them to notice and accept their experience, exactly as it is, and what see when we do this is that people report less craving when they're just noticing and accepting the sensation as it is, and we see it
brain activity in regions that are associated with craving suggesting that even by bringing mindfulness an acceptance to the moment of craving, we might already experienced some improvement. I love this this phrase of light. Can we just noticed experience exactly the way is and just get through? I mean I think that so useful for every from they discover that you feel when you're trying to do in your new goal or what you experience when you're just about a minus are anxious about getting into classes which for listeners ELM is what my yell students are going through. I know trying to get into classes, there's one again had his glass and unable to get, as has been said, but the idea just can I sit with this? Can I just me? Kay with this feeling we often encourage our participants were not trained in mind for when they come into these studies. To really just ask themselves, can I just be ok with this moment? Can I just be ok with his feeling exactly it is, and the idea is that by actually asking yourself, if you can be ok with it, you actually open yourself up to doing something more useful and the next moment so far listeners,
for the folks, an audience here who who want to get going with this new. What what recommendations you have for folks who want to get started? Try it right now take em, right now and see whether you can practise a little bit of it. And if you wanna kick up the intensity of this practice, you might think about something. That's currently really upsetting. You are some stresses that you have in your life and see if you can just noticed the experience of stress and just let that be, we're not saying that you're gonna, let the situation be exactly as it is we just asking about. They feel that you already have. Can you just let this feeling beer and overtime is especially if, as you get more practice you might notice it as you do this year. Sensation of stress about this experience is coming down just a little bit and overtime and might start coming down quite a bit The second vocation is to really start making this a daily practice, or at least a frequent practice, something that you might allow you have to do for five minutes or ten minutes a day for a period. Then a few start noticing changes may be or if you are just really motivated, start doing it for a longer. I think that we're that timed is not the necessarily gonna meditate an hour a day for the rest of your life, but that
we'll do it until you start noticing the benefits that you yourself may be experiencing, and then you actually feel spending fifthly, motivator intrinsically motivated to but more and more, and I think I've never now seen it with students and friends and other people in my life, I've tried the practice maybe found it a little bit annoying at first and then for a while notice it it's actually been really transformative. Is such a wonderful way too cannot do some leg. Gymnastics with your mind, really bring your mind to the gym I wanted to end with you two more of a philosophical question. I feel like as a society where more distracted than ever and in some ways were more kind of crazy than ever for all kinds of things. Do you think understanding the science of this stuff is going to make us happier like we can claim back the present moment and stop all this I guess my hope is that everybody who might have even a little bit of curiosity will try it at least once and maybe even track twice with a that, even if it will bestow just a little bit of benefit to you, that you would have an opportunity to try it and, of course, my hope,
that we all well together, make a world that is just a little kinder and a little bit more mindful everyone can you please join me in thanking doktor had a for a the happiness lab is cholera and introduced by Ryan Delhi. The show was master by seventy Allah and our original music was composed by Zachary Silver
so thanks to Bandy this meal about Julia Barton, Carlini, glory, Heather thing, Maggie Taylor, Maya, caning and Jacob White. The happiness lab is brought to you by Pushkin industries. A strange thing happened to me in the library, while back I needed to pick up a few books This was before the quarantine, a quest. And was nagging me had been nagging me for a long time who killed truth. This truth problem it isn't just bad. It deadly. It's also way older than it might seem. This mystery its historical. Just and I'm a historian at Harvard and staff failure at the new Yorker has been a lot time trying to solve mysteries like this one.
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Transcript generated on 2020-05-26.