« The Tony Robbins Podcast

Why We Do What We Do | Tony explains the 6 Human Needs – an update of his famous 2006 TED talk

2016-09-16 | 🔗

Whatever emotion you’re after, whatever vehicle you pursue — whether it’s building a business, getting married, raising a family or traveling the world — there are six basic, universal needs that make us tick and drive all human behavior. Every single person in this world has these same six needs, but each of us value these needs in different ways, and each of us have varied beliefs about what it means to satisfy those needs. And this is what becomes the driving force behind everything we do, and determines the direction of our lives.

Tony introduced the 6 human needs over 10 years ago, in 2006, at the famous TED conference in Monterey, California. That talk, which was called “Why we do the things we do,” was one of the first 6 TED talks ever, and is now the #6 most viewed TED talk of all time.

In this episode of the Tony Robbins Podcast, you will hear Tony delve deeper into the 6 human needs – certainty, significance, variety, love/connection, growth and contribution – and how each influences our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and actions. It’s a taste of what you will experience at his signature event, Unleash the Power Within. And it’s one of the most important skills that you ever acquire. Because by understanding the needs that shape your behavior, you will be able to take back control over your life, and even learn how to create new patterns that lead to lasting fulfilment.

 

This episode is brought to you by Tony Robbins Unleash the Power Within.

Are you ready to create real, lasting change in your life? Whether you are looking to make a massive breakthrough in your business, your relationship, your career, your health or anything else in your personal life — Unleash the Power Within can help you unlock and unleash the forces inside you and let you create the quality of life you desire and deserve. Learn more about UPW and how you can surpass your own limitations to achieve your goals those goals by visiting www.tonyrobbins.com/unleashed.

This is an unofficial transcript meant for reference. Accuracy is not guaranteed.
Are you ready to create real, lasting change in your life, whether you're looking to make massive breakthrough in your business? Your relationship, your career, your health or anything else in your personal life unleash the power within can help you unlock and unleash the forces inside of you. Might you create the quality of life you desire and deserve learn more about? You be double you and how you can surpass your own limitations to achieve every girl you ve ever wanted by visiting W W W duck tony robins dot com. Slash unleashed welcome to the tunnel Evans pot cast I'm your host any org, and today we are talking about the six human needs What is it that shapes us? What do we do? The things we do? You might think that it's your brain with your mind, you can rationalize anything making whatever we want to happen happen You explain all those times where you're had doesn't help you get what you want when it works stu. Instead, you know exactly what I'm talking about.
Business, your building, the trip, your planning you're. Romantic, really. Perhaps your family, those things you actively pursue on always makes sense, intellectually. So why do you do the things you do because subconsciously you're trying to fulfil your fundamental needs? I'm not talking about the basic physical needs like food, water and shelter. I'm talking The six emotional means that we all have those needs that make us. Take and drive all human behavior combined through the force behind every single thing. You and everyone else does both good and the bad turning round introduced the six human needs over ten years ago in two thousand six at the famous TED conference in Monterrey, California, that talk, which was called why we do the things we do. Was one of the first six TED talks ever now the number six most view TED talk of all time. That's right out of every single TED talk in history, its in the top ten in this episode, you'll him go into a deeper discussion about these needs, its similar to what you
be exposed to you if you attend his signature, unleash the power within event, and we hope it what's your abbot. To attain the next one. Coming soon to your area. Whenever people do, we always have always have a reason they made up. Aware the recent consciously but there's always a reason if someone rise to commit suicide. There's a reason if someone tries to hurt someone else, there's a reason if someone This won't work, a teen, there's a reason. If someone doesn't want to work, there is reason: here's the Good NEWS, dealt with literally ten. Of millions of people from hundreds of countries are more than a hundred countries to be accurate. I could be an idiot at this point. I have to see there are patterns there are patterns it'll make you angry and patents it'll make you sad. Their patterns. Will excite you of tat and so make your grateful. The patents it'll make you can fleetly worried all the time their patents and make you feel so absolutely certain. You can run through enough in.
What you're the patterns are? You can get really ones it don't work and adoption do more often and that's good part of what we can do the next few days to give your perspective, but the most port and understand, is why people do what they do. So, as I told you, I've had a unique gift. I've had the chance to travel the world. This stage of life we literally the world is available to all of us in a few hours, but I want you understand, is everybody as a reason for what they do, The good news is there's only six reasons. There are lots of them when stories, but I can t you by experience been around the world. There is only six reasons in those six reasons are called the six human needs and I'm gonna walk you through these now I need you to manage your statement of two minutes, because we're gonna go a little deeper, I'm too, Do it only so in the future for the next three days, and somebody stands up, you're going get them. You're gonna go what's that I ve, never lemme, ask you which these needs are driving them, because once DR somebody, you gotta meet their needs or you can
victor behaviour and see whether or not there, the right corporate match personal match intimate match, because you have to understand So what are these sits needs? They are not goals. They are now desires. If you try hold me around the world. We will see every culture as different goals. Everybody has different desires, but we all the same needs. What are the number one is the need for certainty, certainty now what else certain certainly is a survival meat, We all need to feel certain that we can avoid paying deal. We can have some comfort why continuous pain would mean. Continuous damage continues. Damage eventually means death, so, me for certainty is built into every human being, and I want to show you now- I'm in a few minutes. If you stay with me- and I really need to do some makes use they sit up in your chair and focused on this area. After this we're gonna kick in gear again. Now you're gonna. Take this. It will be so valuable, not just for this weekend before your life.
All human beings are the same six need. So why do we behave differently because the only thing different people is two things. All the same six needs, but we don't value them equally. Some People certainty is the number one thing they value ever since Reed River you try to change anything they freak out. They get fearful. Bidding angrier. They get pissed off because What matters most of them is keeping things the same way where they feel like doing control regime. If you thought that's an example some People pay value, love much more than certainty. Some people valley thirty more than love. So, even though they love you, if you don't feel certain, they won't open completely, just as one example, so they did some people will have the same. Six need the differences which are the top Do you value most of these? Six, because these tough to determine the direction and life Andrew action have you keep moving lead you to an ultimate destination or destiny.
So we want to understand what you're top do needs are and saving with other people. This we when somebody stands up often I'll say what striving and right now- and I want you to see within a very short time. Eight thousand people from forty four countries will all be saying. The same thing will be there. Obviously you you'll be a practical psychologist that time we're done it so now if we know what, These needs are person dies and- but we also have to find out to people. But up to see me, but we have a different belief about what it takes to be loved or differently. But what it takes to be certain. Somebody. Will we certainly ten billion dollars, somebody with certainty, the protocol, somebody please certain need to feel like you have three feet: perfect children in their everyday Some people to feel certain feel certain, because I've always figured I don't know, what's going to happen, but I know a figure that allows you to get started from your past. You get certainly from God, you certainly by working out intensely
it certainly by eating food too much vote, especially robot comfort in your body. If you over eight or the blood, goes your stomach stock breeding again, so we all. Meat certainty. The only question is the number one, two three four five or six under the list, and the second question is what your brain state ass. They happen to be certain some people, certainly it's impossible to me the young lady over here, who was sitting? the chair, before we intervened, had a blueprint, that's never going to be if only would make her unhappy regularly. So we got him. What needs your after and what you're blueprint, how many gotta feeling at least one on explaining you're right now in some sense to you say awesome, so the first a certainty How can we meet our need for certainty? We can do it there are positive, neutral or negative. I certainly hope be give all want to do. Is get really pissed off and Freedom about something when you get angry due to certain yes or no,
better, believe it? So some people get angry all the time because of their way to go certainly in a life, it's uncertain. All kinds of negative side effects, but it works in a moment. So listen to me now, most people meet their needs in a way that works in a moment, but not long term, so they feel good for What I'm like a sugar and then they drop. A most. Do it again, whether its food, smoking and drinking or whatever it is so you can make your needs and positive ways neutral, wiser, negative way. So came along here and I said what you an answer: Chase Chase I want to make a deal with you. How much do you. Forty six we're going away you in five minutes. He says to forty six, if you're within their range on five here's, my dear, I will give you a multiple fifty million dollars. You s cash tonight, internet account for you there going away. You lose fifty pounds tomorrow morning by eight thirty, I am you will receive
the fifty million. Otherwise I get it back. Can you do it? Yes or no? No, show you can't Take off a word taken on, wouldn't get your ass there there's no person choice is the goal obtainable? Yes or no is it? Jubilant obtainable, yes or no, but it's Sustainable and that's all people meet their needs, they use a drug. Of food or cigarettes or something to get comfortable to get. Certainly back The problem is side effects. Wanter works in the short term doesn't belong to follow say I so you get certainly by over eating or smoking or drinking. When I was you smoke a cigarette take a deep breath. You brought out nice and long and slow full exhale when most we're stressed how many notice that you'd stop breathing or you It really shall augmented notices in the past, so you smokers the moment: immediate need for comfort, and certainly it's killing you, but it works shorter. That's how most
People live their life. You can get only by working out. If you gonna run really intensely or you can live weights and you push yourself a blood sort seeing through you, do you feel Odin, yes or no The downside zero. So there is meet the needs that are empowering neutral or disempowering the parts of our life. We don't like our problems. Why would we keep a problem? RO capable of solving it. Why would we keep a problem The reason you have a problem stuck around is because it meet some of your needs not All of them, or you would want to get rid of it, but not for them. That makes it hard to give up its color have ever been in a relationship to law and its usual hats. And nobody knew what was wrong while you were there. Let me your hats So why the f? Did you stay there because of the uncertainty because well you know
no I'm not thoroughly happy I'm gonna unhappy, but I might be worse. If I was, only when what is this is the best one. I never gonna get screwed up What happened was most of you? Have that feeling taught yourself down into the relationship multiple times until one day you at a threshold your brain when it was painful in the past. The prize is regrettable. Who's? That before say so there. Is a threshold that we can find I met threshold. We can break through we can shift we get to where we really want to go where we really want to go? So what I want? Bulgaria's of these sits needs. We I'll find a way to meet them. The only difference again is which are your top two out of the six and I've told you certainly so far and What are your beliefs or rules are what you're blueprint of how to get that her blueprint was make please everybody which is impossible, so won't work regime to evolve
so let's take a look. What's a second humanity will, first of all you it certainly in so many words you get certain By praying to God, you get certain, by doing a rich all the same way, every time you can get sir, by lowering reputation, saying nothing ever worked. Nothing ever. Will everybody screws things up, you'll who's your dream, but you'll gainer need by the way jotted down. People will go but their goals and dreams to meet their needs. People will give up there rules and dreams, though even give up their own values to meet their needs. I'll give you an example, how many of you in this room consider yourself to be an honest person, very honest person regime? If you consider that to be very honest region now tonight, ok, the reason why, MR chance, if you I can explain it to me, Here's artworks see, in your mind, you know who you are why
what someone law values! Honesty! No one told you the honest. You wanna be honest because, if you think being honest is going to cost you wanna you're needs like love, or certainly you'll, like you call it a white lie, but all I do not want to talk about. Now, there's some people that never lie because value certainty of always telling the truth so much ass. They were their rules are their belief structures. This makes it so tell me something you can meet persuade me so many ways right. So here's the question here is the question. What? If you were certain every one of your life. What was going to happen before it happened? What have you knew? What people? before that and say what, if you could feel, what they're going to feel? What, if you can What if you knew every moment before it up and what people going to say and do in the beginning we feel really exciting but after a while,
what's going to happen when House gonna help and tell me what you're gonna feel after, why will you start to feel tell me what, out of your mind, that's why, God, in her infinite, Damn gave us a second human needs. Certain humanly is uncertainty. We have me for answer: do we have a need for surprise? We haven't made for variety. In fact, with the phrase, variety is the want of life spice of life. How many of you in this room raise? How would you do this room, love, surprise! this ratio? If you love and say I both. You love surprises. You want this approach, As you don't want, you don't want. You call them problems, don't you so don't you lied, surprise as you like despises. You want here's. My point: can you more than one need with the same action or emotion or beliefs.
Storm, yes or no right. Does that any time Any time your mind any time your mind perceives that doing something anytime, your mind perceives that doing something both? leaving something or feeling something meat, these three of new needs. Any time your mind perceives that doing so thing feeling something believing something meet at least three of your needs. Then you will become addicted to that for that. Feeling that emotional or action you can be positive bitter, notably data but you're going to be a time, your brain perceives, that's something you believe, do or feel meets three of your need or get addicted to it. Almost show you why this is important, but look at two needs for second, is it possible to meet the need for certainty and uncertainty simultaneously, even other option, Let me just or no argument example who years ever rented a movie
but you ve already saying: let me see your hands alive? Now I've done two. Why would remove? We have already seen we read it why because we ve seen it before so we're certain its good and well we been so long. We forgot enough it'll be variety. We want you to do it. Who knows what I'm talkin about your I? So you can we both needs, but if you mean three needs you become addicted to that behaviour. Well? That's a good behaviour about behaviour, doesnt matter over your positive action and education, but you'll be at it. So let me give you: how do you get variety? You have rightly positive ways negative. What is a neutral way? Variety, Learning growing, taking on a new goal, a new challenge right. Through a conversation with a friend you'd by plane, we got through so many ways to give rise to, but you can all get variety, a negative way you can smoke but joint and maybe not another way, but it sure will Danger state, but inside the right doing nothing.
You're not gonna function? Maybe it the same Peter understanding or some. People use other things: cigarettes, alcohol, anything there so many ways to get variety. The question these are your ways: positive, neutral, negative or empowering how many fault because we our ways of getting the variety that uncertainty, so here's what I want you to human need, its significance, the need to feel unique, the need to feel special. Yes, I hope that picture makes you feel special, the need to go unique, special important? Who has to be needed to feel specially. Report really does that new ass. It tell me you people say I don't wanna be special, do they still want to be specially? Yes or you bet your ass? They do that Protest too much now didn't want to so special that you attacked them. They might want to stay under cover so to speak, but we still want to feel special. They want to feel unique. We want to build needed. They want to feel important So there are lots of ways the bill special. You can do it by
work on your ass off, taken huge risks and achieving something to feel special or you can t everybody else is trying to build something because there's two ways: the tallest building one is work. Your ass off take risks. Nobody else, building the other one is blocked, everybody else's building and by the way which ones faster, which ones easier, which makes less intelligence and less money tearing should doubt happens faster. So that's why we ve always had violence, and we all William is a consciousness change if I live in it, a part of the community. The hood and you can walk through my unity? A euro notice me, I feel, insignificant. I might take things into my own hands appeal significant if all of a sudden, put a gun to your head, tell me on a zero to ten scale. How certain my you're going to respond to me now, when I put that Dundee had zero to ten tenants, there is not at all. Where would you put it? Quick hundred is a true,
but also when I put my gun to your head, how significant am I to you in your life? Even if you didn't know me a minute ago, if I a you how significant I myself to ten hundred significant bring in your life and a moment ago, you know existed the intelligence and only background in educational needs, a gun and the will to do it over No, I just in case there's not enough there to be an addiction when I put that gun to your head every time that happens. It's gonna be a different game. I know you can pardon me. I know I'm significant, but what you're going to say and do a difference idea. Variety see me three needs, but violence doesn't because the fort Germany, this connection and love and more, People are too afraid to love because they ve loved and been disappointed or they loved and lost the love so painful net how they settle for the crumbs of connection, because that safer, so it's a form of
me but a low level of any, but it still part of the mean we gotta meet it. So if you're going for connection love. Why don't do it head on I'm a turn of certainty, amateurs nevertheless, a moment of a ton of variety but Are we also connected in a sick way but deeply connected in this moment? Yes or no unity, and how much connection is there between our lives? At this moment, I put the gun their hundred We have all the same, so Varlets meets for human needs and that's why we ve always had it. That's why ISIS exists. That's why people do this stupid things they do. Is they to try to meet their needs. The this cause of violent. So if you ll notice, is ninety five percent of time when it's a terrorist it's a male. Why is that? Because and the human nervous system if your masculine testosterone problem large in you with your man or woman. If you're more masculine, you got a lot of testosterone test us
is about dominance. It's about significance. It's about darling, vision and the higher about here is the more they want if they look at their life and they're not dominating, and they get really frustrated. They'll do a final act. Men will die for significance. Women will die for love Now some men will die for love to say you know, but Bio chemically a female is wired. To be able to nurture and to support human beings We wouldn't exists, it wasn't for everyone in this room because we all came through one. We, when existed no ma am we can make. The women were. The reason is because they have that connecting power, as their strength Can any man become more love driven? Yes, can any woman be more significant driven? Yes, but our biochemistry. Leads us that way, which is why a terrorist will come and do what they're doing and kill someone, because all they give about? its domination. Is that I'm significant want certainty in a world where we feel uncertain, and they
a variety of life that is incredibly boring and the Middle EAST can desert, where there's nothing and no one's working where you got through Percent of population unemployed employed, I'm gonna, do what people feel more exciting right now. How many followed and talking about your say. Followed in talking about your say now, can you get signal but in some positive ways, of course, you can be significantly more generous than anyone else, and that generosity, give you a sense of significance, because you know you're really giver you're, not trading you're, not exchanging, you really are giving it. Makes you feel for image. You feel significant. You know the truth about what you tell people virtually you know it's true inside and no one can see what you can its significance by the way you dress you can have, evidence by having more tattoos in hearings and more locations than any of us want to know, but the bottom is there is a need to know more about box scores and sports to be significant, every
and finds a way to be significant. Most people find a way to be significant by having a significant problem. Why, because if I'm really successful, you might like me for a while, but after a while most people get Lloyd with someone is always happening success forego. Who knows? I'm talking about your region right, but if you got big asp problems, who's gonna be upset with you, you're not competing with them. You have huge I understand, but if you really well like easy for you, so much the bus unconsciously learned a great big problems as a way to connect, because it's the safest way to connect and not be rejected. Some of you, do it like she does by trying to please everybody all the time. Thinking about. Please you enough been you'll, come to me you'll. Give me what I'm really wanting to, which is what you want, but it doesn't work that way work sometimes, but not the time and not even the majority. The time come we follow your say.
So we have what need so far number one is. Nice and large number. One is certainty, You can become too. We can avoid paying. You can survive me comfortable. Second, you mean Hence the need for arms. We also need for variety or surprise. What's the thirty the need for veal, unique to feel special. The bill, important areas that need who has that need everyone? and the force be for connection and most people that'll for connection, because Love is too scary because they love. It was so wonderful work and they don't want that pain anymore. So they want love, but they settle for connection. So, if you can Get lubber killer, jury roused by a dog, don't get a cat therein. Get a dog, is it true? You could be the Oh! No! You cannot even feed. You can leave for five hour, didn't pay for five minutes and it's like you can go in for six months or so excited right. So anyone can
ok. I love you too proud you can do to good gives you can do it addressing special. You can do about having great problems. The only question life is not whether you can the EU needs. The only question is how and is it obtainable or sustainable, isn't empowering neutral, or negative, and if you want to change your life, we'll talk we're never lass, but when something needs more of your needs. Its effortless. If you want to know what the biggest addiction is in our culture, if not I'll go it's not something prescription drugs, it's not illicit drug, its problems, problems. Allow us to try to deal with deeper sphere that were not enough and we want love by saying it's not me it's this problem, it's just that ADHD! It's just that I've been through this injustice so most people meet their needs through problems on Fourchan
they don't meet their deepest needs because up until now, we describe the first four needs, which are the basic needs of your personality. But what both of everyone by the way finds a way to meet these first more needs, even if the wider yourself, if you're gonna work twice, our days, you will find a way to me. For certainty, uncertainty, significance, even its issue aboard Is anybody else connection to yourself. You will find a way, but I am all too needs are the need to create fulfilment, and they are the spiritual me. It's not religious, but spiritual. The fifth human need is growth you said we grow or we work There is no way around it. If your business growing its dying. If your relationship as in growing its dying, there are no plateaus in this life whose Ripley here say I so growth is life, if you wanna one word key to happiness or give it to you right now? Is this real obvious? Having worked millions of people, progress equals happiness.
If you're not anymore, you want to be your ears don't ever way, you stole financially struggling you're still, not where you want to be in your career, but you start Workin out. You may want to wake up and start feel embarrassed start making progress or used. To change that business, no, not area but you're, making progress or change that relationship or change the body or change rural anytime. You start making address, your happiness will go through the roof. Anytime. You achieve things. A Euro set up something new to go for quickly. Your whose momentum and in a short time you will be so happy could the laugh milieu already will come in, and this thing that, once with this big dream, will now just be something that you're used to. So the purpose of a goal is not to get the goal, the purpose of a goals who we become to achieve it. What you get will never make you happy who you become, will make you very happy or very sad to bring about how you approach it
You do with your life, so our approach here as we want to grow and then the six human need is the need for contribution the need to step out of ourselves see how many of you in this room, when something ray happens? How many of you can help yourself? You merely want to share. That was somebody about how many immediately that's your first thought say I. Why, because You can only feel so much yourself. I don't care if you had sex rock and roll whatever to users. Only so much pleasure you can internally have you want to share about concert with someone. You want to share that experience, or someone goes by sharing. It becomes more it's more than just U. Growth and contribution
fifth and sixth need they are spiritual me? They are the needs of a fill us. Everybody finds a way to feel somewhat certain some variety. Some significance in Africa Tear people down some connection, but very few people grow continuously contribute continuously, which is where all the joyous, how many volume say I so we're gonna couple distinctions, but First of all, can you meet somebody in a few minutes start to pick up, which needs might be driving the most yes or no? Yes, or no course again. In fact, Example, I was flying out of others by five six seven years ago is flying the small point across the country, and I was being the pilot And I went in Kansas City an alarming cans. Excuse me Linda Kansas, and I'm in this little airport in Kansas and I get on the plane.
The machine. Man comes running out and he's like so enthusiastic, and so just such a sweet good saw just me great, get off this kid and he says what can I do for you? I told him, I'm I'm just fine threats me to read how much how much we need. I suggest filler up because no problem I leave as they leave him come around, weighing walk up the steps to go into the FBI. The fix based operation rub stopping for the moment. I would obviously so it is and there's a young girl sitting on the stairs here and she looks really intense, she's gothic. You know that guy make up she's got, I dont know what exactly but like fifteen earrings on one year, one through the nose really intense. Looking, ok, so I noticed you on the way and in this I walk up the steps I walked, but by your go inside and when I came back out, the steps are really wide, so I sat on the stairs just beside her she's, like one person away and you ve got, Let me know what you want.
I said where you are nothing as enough. Maybe two separate she's like your interest. Thanks and I say it actually, there is some I'd like to know. I said you not tell me, but I'm gonna leave here in a few minutes. You never get me again set your boyfriend up there. She goes both Sworder actually wants him to be right:
That's nice and citizens like really really nice get he's, not nice. He strong. She tells me, I say, ok! Well, I think you stronger nice. Well, maybe it I said you know I'm not even a couple minutes, but I'm just curious. I said how would you because what does it matter as it it doesn't? I'm about to leaves. I wanted to tell me she said on thirteen and I about thou over this girl. I mean seventeen, be the youngest I porter tolling may make up made up in every detail right. So, unlike while, because our you surprise it, I'm really surprised
because it you think I was older yeah. I said no kind of sad meal, but for you she's a y know. I said I'm curious somewhat leave here in a few minutes, because you curious about love fix. I am, I said how come and I'm making up a number of eight and thirteen, but it was more than twelve. How many thirteen or fifteen Eric said she says to me, because everybody else has five now vital tell you anything else about this young lady. What would you say if the number one need a thriving or at this stage, we're life right now. Nice allow go. Which one nice allowed. How many said significance raise your hand, absolutely right, you can seriously, but people driven by more than one thing, is I'm watching her. This really tough ass approach and thinking about how she's a day
to be unique, insignificant. I look down and I see she has a key chain and it's a tiger teaching. You know trigger the Disney character, we do the polluted and I go cool Kitchin and she goes and also my southern girl there. For a second- and I said to her, I said: where'd you get that vehicles or my dad got it for me, and you all the Southerners a thirteen year old girl there. It's totally amazing- and I said It was because I really love to drive and helped trigger curtains. Iver Tearsheets, embarrassing, but they loved so tell me something this woman's knee.
She meets our need for significance by doing what being gothic being different than everybody else. Fifteen hearings tough ass, make up, but she still girls just another need called certainty and comfort and where'd you get that trigger and are dead, and you could see it right there in front of you after this weekend. You will never see the world the same way. If you stay awake instead of seeing people's behaviors you're gonna see their attempts to meet their needs and when people do stupid things there just starving to meet their needs and their fine and something that isn't very. They have or its effective short term, but some long term, and because you ve done this, you can have compassion how many of you have something only less more than one will you do in dumb ass things to meet some of your needs and even though it does meet all you need to meet some of them, and so you keep doing it. Let me see your answer say I so we want to.
Just at the time of its podcast, is directed by twenty robins and hosted by any or carry song? Is our executive producer tenor? Culbertson is our associate producer, Jimmy carve a hall, and Adrian Dilatory. Our digital editors, special thanks to Diana Cock and Mary bucket for their creative review, Copyright Robbins research, international
Transcript generated on 2020-04-04.